ผู้ใช้:Waniosa Amedestir/ทดลองเขียน

แม่แบบต่าง ๆแก้ไข

แม่แบบ:เขตผู้ว่าการอัลมะฮ์เราะฮ์แก้ไข

หมายเหตุถึงผู้เขียนเรื่องวิธีจัดการความสามารถในการยุบ:

  • ใช้ {{Waniosa Amedestir|state=collapsed}} เพื่อแสดงแม่แบบนี้ในสภาพยุบ (ซ่อน)
  • ใช้ {{Waniosa Amedestir|state=expanded}} เพื่อแสดงแม่แบบนี้ในสภาพขยาย (เห็นได้ทั้งหมด)
  • ใช้ {{Waniosa Amedestir|state=autocollapse}} เพื่อแสดงแม่แบบนี้ในสภาพยุบ (ซ่อน) เฉพาะเมื่อมีแม่แบบประเภทเดียวกันอื่นในหน้า (เป็นค่าโดยปริยาย)


แม่แบบ:เขตผู้ว่าการอัลมะฮ์วีตแก้ไข

หมายเหตุถึงผู้เขียนเรื่องวิธีจัดการความสามารถในการยุบ:

  • ใช้ {{Waniosa Amedestir|state=collapsed}} เพื่อแสดงแม่แบบนี้ในสภาพยุบ (ซ่อน)
  • ใช้ {{Waniosa Amedestir|state=expanded}} เพื่อแสดงแม่แบบนี้ในสภาพขยาย (เห็นได้ทั้งหมด)
  • ใช้ {{Waniosa Amedestir|state=autocollapse}} เพื่อแสดงแม่แบบนี้ในสภาพยุบ (ซ่อน) เฉพาะเมื่อมีแม่แบบประเภทเดียวกันอื่นในหน้า (เป็นค่าโดยปริยาย)


แม่แบบ:เขตผู้ว่าการของประเทศเยเมนแก้ไข

หมายเหตุถึงผู้เขียนเรื่องวิธีจัดการความสามารถในการยุบ:

  • ใช้ {{Waniosa Amedestir|state=collapsed}} เพื่อแสดงแม่แบบนี้ในสภาพยุบ (ซ่อน)
  • ใช้ {{Waniosa Amedestir|state=expanded}} เพื่อแสดงแม่แบบนี้ในสภาพขยาย (เห็นได้ทั้งหมด)
  • ใช้ {{Waniosa Amedestir|state=autocollapse}} เพื่อแสดงแม่แบบนี้ในสภาพยุบ (ซ่อน) เฉพาะเมื่อมีแม่แบบประเภทเดียวกันอื่นในหน้า (เป็นค่าโดยปริยาย)
References


แม่แบบ:เดือนอิหร่านแก้ไข

หมายเหตุถึงผู้เขียนเรื่องวิธีจัดการความสามารถในการยุบ:

  • ใช้ {{Waniosa Amedestir|state=collapsed}} เพื่อแสดงแม่แบบนี้ในสภาพยุบ (ซ่อน)
  • ใช้ {{Waniosa Amedestir|state=expanded}} เพื่อแสดงแม่แบบนี้ในสภาพขยาย (เห็นได้ทั้งหมด)
  • ใช้ {{Waniosa Amedestir|state=autocollapse}} เพื่อแสดงแม่แบบนี้ในสภาพยุบ (ซ่อน) เฉพาะเมื่อมีแม่แบบประเภทเดียวกันอื่นในหน้า (เป็นค่าโดยปริยาย)


อื่น ๆแก้ไข

การประท้วงในประเทศเบลารุส พ.ศ. 2563-64
ส่วนหนึ่งของ ขบวนการเรียกร้องประชาธิปไตยเบลารุสและ
ผลจากการเลือกตั้งประธานาธิบดีเบลารุส พ.ศ. 2563
 
Protests on 16 August 2020 in Minsk
วันที่24 May 2020[1] – present
(1 year and 4 weeks)
สถานที่Belarus
สาเหตุ
เป้าหมาย
วิธีการ
คู่ขัดแย้ง
ผู้นำ
จำนวน
16 August:
  • Minsk: ~5,000–65,000[41]
Total:
  • ~100,000 police and soldiers[50]
ความสูญเสีย

1,373 injured including children[51]
4+ dead[52]
32,000+ arrested[53][54][55]
50 missing[56]

[57]
103 injured[58][59]
At least a few journalists wounded[60]
Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia (orthographic projection).svg
พื้นที่4,545,792 km2 (1,755,140 sq mi)
ประชากร641,775,797 (3rd)[61]
ความหนาแน่น135.6/km2 (351/sq mi)
คำเรียกผู้อาศัยSoutheast Asian
จำนวนประเทศ
จำนวนดินแดน
ภาษา
เขตเวลา
อินเทอร์เน็ต TLD.bn, .id, .kh, .la, .mm, .my, .ph, .sg, .th, .tl, .vn
เมืองใหญ่


  • วิกฤตการณ์ไครเมีย
  • การผนวกไครเมีย
เป็นส่วนหนึ่งของ the Ukrainian crisis, the pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine, and the Russo-Ukrainian War
 
Russian President Vladimir Putin signs the treaty of accession with Crimean leaders in Moscow, 18 March 2014.
วันที่ 20 February[note 2] – 26 March 2014[67]
(1 เดือน และ 6 วัน)
สถานที่ Crimean Peninsula
ผลลัพธ์
คู่ขัดแย้ง
  รัสเซีย   ยูเครน
ผู้บัญชาการหรือผู้นำ
  Vladimir Putin
  Dmitry Medvedev
  Sergey Shoygu
  Valery Gerasimov
  Aleksandr Vitko
  Oleg Belaventsev
  Alexey Dyumin
  Sergey Aksyonov
  Vladimir Konstantinov
  Viktor Pshonka
  Rustam Temirgaliev
  Alexey Chaly
  Oleksandr Turchynov
  Arseniy Yatsenyuk
  Ihor Tenyukh
  Mykhailo Kutsyn
  Serhiy Hayduk
  Arsen Avakov
  Valentyn Nalyvaichenko
  Andriy Parubiy
  Anatolii Mohyliov
  Serhiy Kunitsyn
  Refat Chubarov
  Mustafa Dzhemilev
กองทัพ
Based in Crimea,
elements of
  • 510th Naval Inf Bde (Feodosiia)
  • 810th Naval Inf Bde (Simferopol)

Deployed to Crimea, elements of

[80]

Armed forces
  • 36th Mech Coastal Defence Bde (at Perevalne)
  • 1st Naval Inf Bn (Feodosiia)
  • 501st Naval Inf Bn (Kerch)
  • 56th Gds Bn (Sevastopol)
  • 406th Artillery Bde (Simferopol)
  • 37th Comms and Control Rgt (Sevastopol)

Interior troops

  • 9th Interior Troops Bde (Simferopol)
  • 42nd Interior Troops Bde (Sevastopol)
  • 47th Interior Troops Bde (Feodosiia)
  • 15th Interior Troops Bn (Yevpatoriia)
  • 18th Mot Police Bn (Haspra)

Border guards

  • Special-Purpose Border Guard Bn (Yalta)

[81]

กำลัง
Protesters

Volunteer units[83][85]

  • 5,000 (Sevastopol)
  • 1,700 (Simferopol)

Russian military forces

  • 20,000–30,000 troops[86]
Protesters

Ukrainian military forces

  • 5,000–22,000 troops[89][90]
  • 40,000 reservists, partly mobilised (outside Crimea)[91]
กำลังพลสูญเสีย
1 Crimean SDF trooper killed[92]
  • 2 soldiers killed[93]
  • 60–80 soldiers detained[94]
  • 9,268 military servicemen and 7,050 civilian employees defected[95][96]
2 civilian deaths during the protests, 1 civilian killed by "Crimean self-defense" under the leadership of a former serviceman of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation[97][98][99][100][101][102]

บิล เวิร์ซ (อัปเดต)แก้ไข

ระวังสับสนกับ บิล เวิร์ตซ์ หรือ บิล วีร์ตซ์
Bill Wurtz
 
โลโก้ช่องยูทูบของบิล เวิร์ซ
ข้อมูลพื้นฐาน
เกิดค.ศ. 1989/1990 (อายุ 31–32 ปี)[103]
ที่เกิดนิวยอร์ก[q 1]
แนวเพลงแจ๊ส-ป็อป[note 3]
อาชีพ
เครื่องดนตรี
  • เสียงร้อง
  • เปียโน
  • กีตาร์เบส
  • กลอง
ช่วงปีค.ศ. 2002–ปัจจุบัน
เว็บไซต์billwurtz.com
ข้อมูลยูทูบ
ปีที่มีการเคลื่อนไหวค.ศ. 2012–ปัจจุบัน
ประเภท
จำนวนผู้ติดตาม4.71 million
จำนวนผู้เข้าชม554.6 million
  ผู้ติดตาม 100,000 คน 2016
  ผู้ติดตาม 1,000,000 คน 2017
ยอดผู้ติดตามและผู้เข้าชม ณ วันที่ March 23, 2021.

nบิล เวิร์ซ (อังกฤษ: Bill Wurtz; ตามแบบตัวพิมพ์เล็กเป็น bill wurtz หรือ billwurtz) เป็นนักร้อง-นักเขียนเพลงชาวสหรัฐ และผู้ผลิตวิดีโอออนไลน์ที่มีฐานในนิวยอร์ก เขาเป็นที่รู้จักจาก for his distinctive musical, comedic, and narrative style which includes deadpan delivery and singing paired with colorful surrealist, psychedelic, and non-sequitur graphics.

Wurtz first published material on YouTube in 2013. He set up a website in 2014, presenting a catalog of music and videos he had created since 2002. Wurtz proceeded to upload edited versions of his videos on Vine, where he gained his initial popularity. He experienced breakout success on YouTube with his animated videos, History of Japan (2016), and History of the Entire World, I Guess (2017). Wurtz released music videos regularly from 2017 to March 2019. Through the rest of 2019 and all of 2020 Wurtz was inactive on YouTube, revamping his setup for video creation, but returned to the platform in January 2021 with a new visual style of 3D animation.

โปรเจกต์และวิดีโอที่สำคัญแก้ไข

วิดีโอไวน์แก้ไข

Wurtz was first known for his presence on the short-form video-sharing website Vine,[105][106] where he first gained a following in 2014.[107] He began by taking short videos he had previously published to his website and re-editing them to fit Vine's six-second restriction.[107] Before transitioning fully to YouTube, Wurtz was uploading a video to Vine nearly every day.[108] He received early attention in 2015 for the short video "Shaving My Piano", which was covered briefly in The Verge.[109] On April 11, 2016, Wurtz won the Shorty Award for "Tech & Innovation: Weird" at the 8th Shorty Awards; during the awards ceremony, attention was given to one of his Vine uploads "I'm Still a Piece of Garbage".[110] His acceptance speech for the award was notably curt, as he walked up to the mic, said "Thank you", and immediately walked off the stage.[111] He has stated in a video on his website that this was directly inspired by an acceptance speech given by André 3000.[112](0:00:36)

History of Japanแก้ไข

Alongside interest on Vine, Wurtz achieved wider popularity in 2016 with History of Japan, a nine-minute YouTube video that outlines Japan's history.[113] The video covers key events of its history: "Buddhism, internal conflict, alliances with Britain, World Wars I and II, the dropping of atomic bombs and its post-war economic miracle".[114] It showcases Wurtz's quirky visual and comedic style through a mixture of fast-paced narration and animation, intercut with short musical jingles. The video was described as "an entertaining new approach to education".[115] It went viral on social media after its release on February 2, 2016, and under a week later, received over four million views by February 8.[114] It particularly received considerable attention on Tumblr[105] and Reddit.[113] As of April 2021, the video boasts over 65 million views. Writer German Lopez for the news website Vox called it a "strange", "pretty good – and surprisingly funny" video. Nevertheless, Lopez noted the poor coverage of Japanese war crimes committed against Korea and China in the 20th century, particularly the Nanjing Massacre and the use of Korean sex slaves, and attributed this omission to the video's short runtime.[116] Wurtz has responded to these criticisms on his questions page, suggesting to viewers to look for other YouTube channels that cover these topics.[q 3]

History of the Entire World, I Guessแก้ไข

  วิดีโอจากแหล่งข้อมูลภายนอก
  History of Japan, YouTube video or download
  History of the Entire World, I Guess, YouTube video or download

Wurtz is best known for History of the Entire World, I Guess, a 20-minute follow-up to History of Japan released on May 10, 2017.[117] Expanding greatly on the subject matter – the video took over 11 months to produce, including almost 3 months of research[108] – it briefly covers the topics of natural history and human civilization spanning from the Big Bang to the near future.[118] Like its predecessor, the video features short "jazzy" musical interludes, which were compared to Thundercat's album Drunk.[119]

History of the Entire World, I Guess was the top video on the YouTube trending page on the day of its release, receiving 3.2 million views on its first day, and on Reddit it became the most upvoted YouTube link of all time.[106][120] It became an Internet meme[121] and was listed at eighth place on YouTube's list of the top 10 trending videos of the year.[122] ข้อมูลเมื่อ มีนาคม 2021 it has over 117 million views. Writer German Lopez for the news website Vox praised the video for not heavily focusing on western and US history, and successfully covering other areas in world history which may be neglected in US schools, such as powers in China, Persia, and India.[123] It has been called a "must-see"[119] and is considered to be Wurtz's magnum opus.[107][124] In 2020, Thrillist ranked the video at number 40 on its list of best YouTube videos of all time.[125]

Music videosแก้ไข

Following the production of the history videos, Wurtz turned his attention to releasing music videos. Between August 21 and December 25, 2018, he released a new song and music video every two weeks, for a total of nine.[q 4] Having taken up to fourteen weeks to make videos before this point, Wurtz characterized the new schedule as a breakthrough, a "training exercise to increase the quality in ways I never would have found otherwise".[q 5] Wurtz has since decided to create a music video for every new song he releases, despite it slowing down his songwriting considerably.[q 6]

Wurtz's song "Just Did a Bad Thing" and the accompanying video spawned TikTok videos of people lip-syncing to the opening lines; in the platform, #ididabadthing became the top hashtag of March 2019.[126][127] Following this, Wurtz would only post four more videos before his break, ending with "Might Quit". After the "Might Quit" video was released, Wurtz would not post any new videos to YouTube for nearly two years. He stated that he was working on content, but took longer to create them since he was in the process of learning new video editing and 3D animation software, including Blender.[q 7][q 8][q 9]

On January 18, 2021, Wurtz released the music video for a new original song "Here Comes the Sun," utilizing the 3D software he had been learning.[128] About two months later, on March 23, 2021, he published his second 3D animated music video, "I'm a Princess".[129] On April 19, 2021, he released "Got Some Money", a music video that mixed 2D and 3D elements.[130]

Styleแก้ไข

Wurtz has developed an absurdist, surreal style on both his music and animation.[131][132] Eddie Kim wrote for MEL Magazine that Wurtz "refuses to mimic anyone else's animation or musical style, but it's not weird for weirdness' sake alone", comparing him to Thundercat and Louis Cole and highlighting Wurtz's pretty pop melodies, unexpected chords and multi-layered rhythms as commonalities.[107] Geoff Carter of Las Vegas Weekly stated: "Merge Don Hertzfeldt, Jenny Holzer and Thundercat and you might get someone a little bit like Bill Wurtz".[119] Nick Douglas of Lifehacker summarized him as "somewhere between comedy and education and vaporwave."[133]

Musicแก้ไข

Wurtz's music has been classified as jazz-pop, incorporating elements of lo-fi music, smooth jazz, funk and easy listening.[107][104] Despite this, Wurtz tends to reject genre categorization,[q 10][q 11] and does not consider himself to be a jazz musician.[q 12] Overall, his music evokes malaise, self-deprecation, and a "blurring of the lines between irony, parody and honesty".[134] This is often paired comedically with dire circumstances or sobering undertones.[135] In an interview with Genius, Wurtz stated that "it's a good... songwriting technique to write about something bad with a good sounding melody, because if you can get people to feel good about something bad, then you're bulletproof in life."[136](0:00:46) Wurtz's voice has been described as "silky tenor with range and energy".[107] Artists who have expressed admiration for Wurtz's music include indie musicians Daði Freyr[137] and Sidney Gish,[138] fellow YouTube musician Adam Neely,[139](1:25:50) DJ and producer Porter Robinson,[140] as well as Australian singer Sia.[141]

Wurtz started playing music at a very early age.[q 13] Wurtz has used different programs to edit his music, including GarageBand from 2009 to 2010,[q 14] and long-discontinued Logic Express 9 until at least 2016.[142]

Videosแก้ไข

Wurtz's videos are typically in a lo-fi,[143] neon[105] aesthetic, and have been described as surreal[132] and psychedelic.[108][115] They range from "nonsensical" shorts to animated music videos,[143] and often involve deadpan humor, dancing stick figures, vaporwave-like transitions[107] and neon, sans-serif text on-screen.[131] Wurtz often follows similar patterns in his videos such as multi-layering,[108] including screenshots of built-in macOS applications such as TextEdit,[144] along with clip art images,[143] and showing himself playing "air drums", overlaying images where the drumheads would be.[145] He has stated the low-budget quality arose out of a necessity to publish videos regularly and evolved naturally.[108](0:35:27)

At Vidcon 2018, Wurtz was asked why his style is so different from other YouTube musicians. He stated that he chooses to "live under a rock" and produce his music in isolation rather than take inspiration from other creators on the platform.[146] He explains further on his website that one of his most important goals is to "go my own way and deliver things that challenge and defy... expectations".[q 15] Wurtz publicly struggles with perfectionism, making use of schedules and deadlines to overcome it.[108] In response to a fan question he explained that in the process of doing this he has "been forced to become an expert on carelessness".[q 16]

Wurtz is decidedly against running advertising on or accepting sponsorships for his videos, despite admitting an "enormous" pressure to do so.[107][143] He has explained that advertisements make him "uncomfortable"[108] and that he thinks they "suck".[143] As a result, all of Wurtz's videos and music are available for free on his website.[147] Wurtz does receive direct fan support, which includes crowdfunding on Patreon,[106] streams on music streaming services, and merchandise sales,[143][108](0:44:15) but does not heavily promote any of these revenue streams.[108]

Websiteแก้ไข

While Wurtz has a larger audience on external platforms like YouTube, he is the most active on his own website, billwurtz.com.[147] Despite being launched in 2014, it has been compared to a late 1990s website due to its simple design.[143] Apart from containing all of his released songs and most of his videos dating back since 2002,[107] the website also features many other types of content not available elsewhere. This includes a questions page, as well as an anagram page, where Wurtz allows fans to request words or phrases out of which he creates anagrams.[148] Additionally, Wurtz has posted audio clips of musical improvisation both with vocal and vocal with music usually being piano or keyboard,[149] jazz covers,[150] original instrumental tracks,[151] as well as vlog-style 'reality' videos depicting his creative process.[152][107]

Awardsแก้ไข

Year Award Category Nominee Result
2016 Shorty Awards Tech & Innovation: Best in Weird Bill Wurtz ชนะ[110]

Notesแก้ไข

  1. Transcontinental country.
  2. There remain "some contradictions and inherent problems" regarding date on which the annexation began.[62] Ukraine claims 20 February 2014 as the date of "the beginning of the temporary occupation of Crimea and Sevastopol by Russia.", citing timeframe inscribed on the Russian medal "For the Return of Crimea",[63] and in 2015 the Ukrainian parliament officially designated the date as such.[64] In early March 2015, President Putin stated in a Russian movie about annexation of Crimea that he ordered the operation to "restore" Crimea to Russia following an all-night emergency meeting of 22–23 February 2014,[62][65] and in 2018 Russian Foreign Minister claimed that earlier "start date" on the medal was due to "technical misunderstanding".[66]
  3. ขณะที่นักวิจารณ์จัดแนวเพลงดนตรีของเขา[104] เวิร์ซไม่ได้สนใจในการจัดนี้[q 2]

Referencesแก้ไข

Bill Wurtz's questions pageแก้ไข

  1. Wurtz, Bill (14 September 2017). "If I came to new york would I be in close proximity to where you spend a lot of your time?". billwurtz.com. สืบค้นเมื่อ 15 July 2019. yes
  2. Wurtz, Bill (14 June 2016). "is there a genre of music you don't feel confident you could actually pull off, like if someone was all "bill i am paying you 400 bucks to make a heavy metal song" or so, or do you think you could tackle pretty much anything?". billwurtz.com. สืบค้นเมื่อ 3 August 2019. i don't respect genre names, and that's one of the reasons i absolutely never record songs for hire
  3. Wurtz, Bill. "[...] Why have you glossed over the atrocities Japan has committed, which are major events in Japan's history? Examples include the Rape of Nanking, the South Korean Comfort Women, and the human testing conducted on Chinese civilians.[...]". billwurtz.com. สืบค้นเมื่อ 10 September 2020. i think there are some other channels that have the type of video you are looking for
  4. Wurtz, Bill (3 November 2018). "I am humbly grateful for your uploads every two weeks, even surprising me ahead of schedule; honestly, I wasn't expecting long, long, long, journey until Thursday or Friday. This one has been my morning alarm and have given me wings each time I listen to it [...]". billwurtz.com. สืบค้นเมื่อ 26 June 2019. i would probably call it the 2-week song schedule
  5. Wurtz, Bill (14 October 2018). "it's ok if you don't finish the video by Tuesday [...] we (the fans) get brand new content from you bi-weekly, which feels great, remembering that it used to take 8–10 weeks to get a single music video. but what about you bill?". billwurtz.com. สืบค้นเมื่อ 26 June 2019. that's not true [...] this is a training exercise to increase the quality in ways i never would have found otherwise [...] it's the biggest breakthrough i've had since the 5-day schedule in early 2014
  6. Wurtz, Bill (11 June 2019). "[...] keeping up with making the videos to go with the music is going to slow down the whole songwriting process, yes? [...]". billwurtz.com. สืบค้นเมื่อ 26 June 2019. [...] ah but have you considered if you had the same passionate drive i do for videos
  7. Wurtz, Bill (19 November 2020). "On your wiki article it said you are learning blender what are your thoughts on blender 2.9". billwurtz.com. สืบค้นเมื่อ 30 November 2020. like a hole in the head, do i need another catastrophic upgrade transition. i am using 2.8 and will be there for the next several years until i am ready to rip my life apart once more
  8. Wurtz, Bill (13 November 2020). "you say that you're working on learning to do 3D graphics, but there's a 3D spaceship and a 3D toaster in andthedaygoeson, and a 3D building-thing in mightquit (as well as probably others). how is what you're doing now different from either of those?". billwurtz.com. สืบค้นเมื่อ 15 November 2020. [...]all of my 2D software tools were discontinued, or changed so much that they became unrecognizable to me. so this was a good excuse to migrate to a completely new system, with completely new methods. so far, this has either ruined my life or saved it. i will keep you updated.
  9. Wurtz, Bill (18 August 2019). "Why haven't you made a video for 5 months?". billwurtz.com. สืบค้นเมื่อ 21 June 2020. [...]it occurred to me that now might actually be the most fine time to go ahead and do what is known as the 'finalcut transition', which long story short means i have to entirely abandon the primary video editing software i have used for the last 5 years. the reason for that is because it was discontinued in 2011. [...] i always used to say, 'there's never a good time to re-learn everything i know'[...]
  10. Wurtz, Bill (14 June 2016). "is there a genre of music you don't feel confident you could actually pull off [...], or do you think you could tackle pretty much anything?". billwurtz.com. สืบค้นเมื่อ 3 August 2019. i don't respect genre names [...]
  11. Wurtz, Bill (2 December 2018). "do you think music genres help or hinder the art of music?". billwurtz.com. สืบค้นเมื่อ 9 September 2020. they are a fun and useful source of hopeless confusion and ambiguity
  12. Wurtz, Bill (21 January 2019). "Would you consider your style to be a sub-genre of or a derivative of jazz?". billwurtz.com. สืบค้นเมื่อ 17 September 2020. no
  13. Wurtz, Bill (15 February 2021). "[...]Did people in your life have an influence on you developing this skill?". billwurtz.com. สืบค้นเมื่อ 16 February 2021. i was able to hear a lot of music on records[...]and i will confess i also had access to a piano/keyboard instrument, and a drum set.[...] Having an extremely early start, it was pretty natural to find myself in many many personal and professional music relationships with peers (well at first it was usually people much older than me because i was so young to start)
  14. Wurtz, Bill (13 March 2019). "do you use garageband? [...]". billwurtz.com. สืบค้นเมื่อ 12 September 2020. i used it during 2009 and 2010 only
  15. Wurtz, Bill (18 April 2016). "Why not take requests for Patrons that pay more than $25? A custom song for those who want it, and it pays for the electricity". billwurtz.com. สืบค้นเมื่อ 12 March 2019. one of the most important things i aim to do is go my own way, and deliver things that challenge and defy the expectations. if that is not what you are interested in, then you should not be supporting me
  16. Wurtz, Bill (17 October 2018). "i'm not sure if you're a perfectionist or a bit anything goes. which is it?". billwurtz.com. สืบค้นเมื่อ 26 June 2019. i have a deeply rooted and incapacitating perfection problem, and in the process of overcoming it i have been forced to become an expert on carelessness. [...]

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  102. Зверски убитого крымского татарина звали Решат Аметов. Трое малолетних детей осиротели. [Brutally murdered Crimean Tatar's name was Reshat Ametov. Three toddlers left orphaned.]. censor.net.ua (ภาษารัสเซีย). 18 March 2014. สืบค้นเมื่อ 3 April 2014.
  103. "Thursday, May 14, 2009 2:56:46 AM".
  104. 104.0 104.1 Ring, Julian. "These Viral Musicians Are Still Making Great Songs". Pandora Blog. เก็บ จากแหล่งเดิมเมื่อ 27 March 2019. สืบค้นเมื่อ 14 August 2019.
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  106. 106.0 106.1 106.2 Gutelle, Sam (11 May 2017). "Bill Wurtz's "History of the Entire World" Gets 3.2 Million YouTube Views in Its First Day". Tubefilter. สืบค้นเมื่อ 12 May 2017.
  107. 107.0 107.1 107.2 107.3 107.4 107.5 107.6 107.7 107.8 107.9 Kim, Eddie (12 October 2018). "Meet Bill Wurtz, the Internet Musical Genius You've Never Heard Of". MEL Magazine. สืบค้นเมื่อ 26 June 2019.
  108. 108.0 108.1 108.2 108.3 108.4 108.5 108.6 108.7 108.8 Klein, Ethan; Klein, Hila (1 December 2018). The H3 Podcast (podcast). The United States: h3h3 productions. สืบค้นเมื่อ 22 August 2019.
  109. Sheffer, Sam (13 July 2015). "Why can't I stop watching this video of a piano being shaved?". The Verge. สืบค้นเมื่อ 17 September 2020.
  110. 110.0 110.1 Lee, Ashley. "Shorty Awards: The Complete Nominations List". The Hollywood Reporter. เก็บ จากแหล่งเดิมเมื่อ 11 September 2018. สืบค้นเมื่อ 24 August 2019.
  111. Gordy, Stefan; Wurtz, Bill (12 April 2016). Bill Wurtz accepts the Shorty Award for Best in Weird (video). Shorty Awards. สืบค้นเมื่อ 24 August 2019.
  112. "201604121847.mp4". billwurtz.com. สืบค้นเมื่อ 25 November 2018.
  113. 113.0 113.1 Gaudette, Emily (10 May 2017). "Viral 'History of Japan' Video Finally Has an Update on the Entire World". Inverse. สืบค้นเมื่อ 14 August 2019.
  114. 114.0 114.1 Moran, Lee (8 February 2016). "WATCH: Trippy Video Teaches The Entire History Of Japan In Just 9 Minutes". HuffPost. สืบค้นเมื่อ 28 December 2016.
  115. 115.0 115.1 Strange, Adario (6 February 2016). "Psychedelic history of Japan turns learning into an acid trip". Mashable. คลังข้อมูลเก่า เก็บจาก แหล่งเดิม เมื่อ 9 February 2016. สืบค้นเมื่อ 10 August 2019.
  116. Lopez, German (18 May 2017). "The most bizarre, entertaining history of Japan you'll ever watch". Vox. สืบค้นเมื่อ 9 September 2020.
  117. Wurtz, Bill (10 May 2017), history of the entire world, i guess, สืบค้นเมื่อ 14 May 2017
  118. "The (almost) entire history of the world in under 20 hilarious minutes? This video is your answer". Scroll.in. 18 May 2017. สืบค้นเมื่อ 10 September 2020.
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  120. Gartenberg, Chaim (11 May 2017). "History of the Entire World, I Guess could have been the best online video of 2005". The Verge. สืบค้นเมื่อ 24 June 2017.
  121. Hathaway, Jay (17 May 2017). "Viral 'History of the World' video turns into a meme bonanza". The Daily Dot. สืบค้นเมื่อ 17 September 2020.
  122. Spangler, Todd (6 December 2017). "YouTube Reveals 2017 Top Viral and Music Videos". Variety. สืบค้นเมื่อ 22 September 2020.
  123. Lopez, German (7 May 2018). "Watch this bizarre, hilarious history of the whole world". Vox. เก็บ จากแหล่งเดิมเมื่อ 13 April 2019. สืบค้นเมื่อ 25 August 2019.
  124. Shamsian, Jacob (18 May 2017). "This 20-minute animated video explains the entire history of the world – and the internet is obsessed with it". Insider. สืบค้นเมื่อ 20 July 2019.
  125. "The 100 Greatest YouTube Videos of All Time, Ranked". Thrillist. สืบค้นเมื่อ 7 September 2020.
  126. Scheetz, Cameron (20 August 2020). "Follow the Old Town Road: 20 songs that got a boost from TikTok fame". The A. V. Club. สืบค้นเมื่อ 18 September 2020.
  127. Lee, Dami (2 August 2019). "TikTok turns one: its first 12 months, as told through TikToks". The Verge. สืบค้นเมื่อ 18 September 2020.
  128. Wurtz, Bill (18 January 2021). "here comes the sun". YouTube. สืบค้นเมื่อ 18 January 2021.
  129. Wurtz, Bill (23 March 2021). "i'm a princess". YouTube. สืบค้นเมื่อ 23 March 2021.
  130. Wurtz, Bill (19 April 2021). "got some money". YouTube. สืบค้นเมื่อ 19 April 2021.
  131. 131.0 131.1 Shi, Diana (9 July 2017). "Watch This Absurd Animation Where a Little Man Climbs a Mountain to Avoid Taxes". Vice. สืบค้นเมื่อ 17 September 2020.
  132. 132.0 132.1 Muncy, Julie (1 May 2018). "This Surreal Inspirational Cartoon Will Have You Ready To Face Anything". Gizmodo. สืบค้นเมื่อ 17 September 2020.
  133. Douglas, Nick (15 May 2018). "Where to Waste Time Online". Lifehacker. สืบค้นเมื่อ 18 September 2020.
  134. Manning, Walker (31 January 2018). "Bill Wurtz Is The Musician Our Generation Deserves". The Odyssey Online.
  135. Vroman, Ben (14 February 2019). "REVIEW: Although unorthodox, Wurtz creates captivating complex pieces". The Harbinger. Algonquin Regional High School. เก็บ จากแหล่งเดิมเมื่อ 7 August 2019. สืบค้นเมื่อ 25 August 2019.
  136. Reneau, Steven (11 January 2019). "Bill Wurtz Breaks Down The Meaning Of "Mount St. Helens Is About To Blow Up"". Genius. สืบค้นเมื่อ 8 September 2020.
  137. "Get To Know... Daði Freyr". DIY. 27 May 2020. สืบค้นเมื่อ 6 September 2020.
  138. Beriss, Ben (25 January 2019). "WBRS brings indie spirit to campus". The Brandeis Hoot. สืบค้นเมื่อ 8 September 2020.
  139. Neely, Adam (12 July 2018). "MUSICA ANALYTICA 2 | Livestream with 12tone, Sideways and 8-bit Music Theory". YouTube. สืบค้นเมื่อ 8 September 2020.
  140. Bein, Kat (16 July 2018). "Porter Robinson Shouts-Out Mat Zo, Nina Las Vegas and More of His Favorite Artists to Celebrate His Birthday". Billboard. สืบค้นเมื่อ 6 September 2020.
  141. Furler, Sia [Sia] (10 November 2018). "Get into this weirdness" (ทวีต). สืบค้นเมื่อ 8 September 2020 – โดยทาง ทวิตเตอร์.
  142. Hale, Kirby; Wurtz, Bill (February 2016). "What editing software do you use? I'm very new to your videos and I always ask that question as I'm into the editing field". Ask.fm. คลังข้อมูลเก่า เก็บจาก แหล่งเดิม เมื่อ 17 June 2016. สืบค้นเมื่อ 12 September 2020. [...] for the music i use logic express 9, which also doesn't exist anymore [...]
  143. 143.0 143.1 143.2 143.3 143.4 143.5 143.6 Pandell, Lexi (16 January 2019). "How Bill Wurtz's Videos Make the Internet a Better Place". OK Whatever. สืบค้นเมื่อ 20 July 2019.
  144. bill wurtz, unboxing video, สืบค้นเมื่อ 31 January 2019
  145. bill wurtz, La de da de da de da de day oh, สืบค้นเมื่อ 31 January 2019
  146. Winters, Miranda (23 June 2018). MIRANDA SINGS & THE EXPO HALL (video). สืบค้นเมื่อ 26 October 2018.
  147. 147.0 147.1 "billwurtz". billwurtz.com. สืบค้นเมื่อ 19 July 2019.
  148. "scarmble". billwurtz.com. สืบค้นเมื่อ 19 July 2019.
  149. "improv". billwurtz.com. สืบค้นเมื่อ 19 July 2019.
  150. "billwurtz". billwurtz.com. สืบค้นเมื่อ 19 July 2019.
  151. "billwurtz". billwurtz.com. สืบค้นเมื่อ 19 July 2019.
  152. "reality". billwurtz.com. สืบค้นเมื่อ 19 July 2019.

แหล่งข้อมูลอื่นแก้ไข

  • ไม่พบ URL โปรดระบุ URL ที่นี่หรือเพิ่ม URL ในวิกิสนเทศ

พระสูตร (หน้าเปลี่ยนทาง)แก้ไข

 
เอกสารตัวเขียนภาษาสันสกฤตของสัทธรรมปุณฑรีกสูตร (ศาสนาพุทธ) จากเตอร์กิสถานใต้ในอักษรพราหมี
 
เอกสารตัวเขียนจากกัลป์สูตร (ศาสนาเชน)

พระสูตร (สันสกฤต: सूत्र, อักษรโรมัน: sūtra, lit.'สาย, เชือก[1]') ในวรรณกรรมอินเดีย สื่อถึงคติพจน์หรือชุดคติพจน์ในรูปของคู่มือ หรือในความหมายโดยกว้างคือคู่มือหรือข้อความแบบย่อ พระสูตรเป็นหนึงในประเภทของเนื้อหาในอินเดียยุคโบราณถึงยุคกลาง ซึ่งพบในศาสนาฮินดู ศาสนาพุทธ และศาสนาเชน[2][1]

ในศาสนาฮินดู พระสูตรเป็นหนึ่งในประเภทองค์ประกอบทางวรรณกรรม ซึ่งเป็นการรวบรวมข้อความคติพจน์สั้น[2][3] แต่ละสูตรมีความยาวไม่มากเหมือนทฤษฎีที่ถูกกรองเป็นคำหรือพยางค์เพียงไม่กี่คำ ซึ่งมีวิธีการในพิธีกรรม ปรัชญา ไวยากรณ์ หรือศาสตร์ความรู้ใด ๆ ที่สามารถรวมกันได้[1][2] พระสูตรที่เก่าแก่ที่สุดในศาสนาฮินดูถูกพบที่ชั้นพราหมณะ (Brahmana) และอารันยก (Aranyaka) ของพระเวท[4][5] ปรัชญาฮินดูทุกสำนักถือให้พระเวมเป็นทางนำของพิธีกรรม ศิลปะสาขาต่าง ๆ กฎหมาย และจริยธรรมทางสังคม[3][6][7]

ในศาสนาพุทธ พระสูตรเป็นสารบบตามคัมภีร์ ซึ่งหลายอันถือว่าเป็นบันทึกปากเปล่าจากพระโคตมพุทธเจ้า แม้ว่ามันจะไม่ได้เป็นคติพจน์ แต่ยังมีรายละเอียดที่บางครั้งกล่าวถึงซ้ำ นี่อาจสะท้อนถึงรากทางปรัชญาของ สุกตะ (sukta; พูดดี) มากกว่า สูตร (sutra; เชือก)[8]

ในศาสนาเชน พระสูตรเป็นพระธรรมเทศนาของพระมหาวีระ ซึ่งรวบรวมในเชนอาคมเช่นเดียวกันกับตำรากฎเกณฑ์ (บัญญัติในภายหลัง) ในภายหลัง[9][10]

ดูเพิ่มแก้ไข

อ้างอิงแก้ไข

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Monier Williams, Sanskrit English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, Entry for sutra, page 1241
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 M Winternitz (2010 Reprint), A History of Indian Literature, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0264-3, pages 249
  3. 3.0 3.1 Gavin Flood (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-43878-0, pages 54–55
  4. Max Muller, History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, Oxford University Press, pages 108–113
  5. M Winternitz (2010 Reprint), A History of Indian Literature, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0264-3, pages 251–253
  6. Max Muller, History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, Oxford University Press, page 74
  7. White, David Gordon (2014). The Yoga Sutra of Patanjali: A Biography. Princeton University Press. pp. 194–195. ISBN 978-0-691-14377-4.
  8. K. R. Norman (1997), A philological approach to Buddhism: the Bukkyo Dendo Kyokai Lectures 1994. (Buddhist Forum, Vol. v.)London: School of Oriental and African Studies,p. 104
  9. M. Whitney Kelting (2001). Singing to the Jinas: Jain Laywomen, Mandal Singing, and the Negotiations of Jain Devotion. Oxford University Press. pp. 111–112. ISBN 978-0-19-803211-3.
  10. Padmanabh S. Jaini (1991). Gender and Salvation: Jaina Debates on the Spiritual Liberation of Women. University of California Press. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-520-06820-9.

บรรณานุกรมแก้ไข

  • Arthur Anthony Macdonell (1900). "The sūtras" . A History of Sanskrit Literature. New York: D. Appleton and company.
  • Monier-Williams, Monier. (1899) A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Delhi:Motilal Banarsidass. p. 1241
  • Tubb, Gary A.; Boose, Emery R. (2007). Scholastic Sanskrit: A Handbook for Students. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-9753734-7-7.

แหล่งข้อมูลอื่นแก้ไข

ตูปูอา ตามาเซเซ เมอาโอเล (ทำให้ดี)แก้ไข

ตูปูอา ตามาเซเซ เมอาโอเล
 
ตามาเซเซในวันประกาศอิสรภาพซามัว
1 มกราคม ค.ศ. 1962
โอเลอาโอโอเลมาโลแห่งซามัว
ดำรงตำแหน่ง
1 January 1962 – 5 April 1963
Serving with Malietoa Tanumafili II
นายกรัฐมนตรี Fiame Mata'afa Faumuina Mulinu'u II
ก่อนหน้า John Bird Wright
(As High Commissioner)
ถัดไป Malietoa Tanumafili II
(As sole Head of State)
Tupua Tamasese
ดำรงตำแหน่ง
1929 — 5 April 1963
ก่อนหน้า Tupua Tamasese Lealofi III
ถัดไป Tupua Tamasese Lealofi IV
Member of the Legislative Assembly
ดำรงตำแหน่ง
1948 – 1957
Member of the Legislative Council
ดำรงตำแหน่ง
1935 – 1948
ข้อมูลส่วนบุคคล
เกิด 3 June 1905
Vaimoso, German Samoa
เสียชีวิต 5 เมษายน ค.ศ. 1963 (57 ปี)
คู่สมรส Irene Gustava Noue Nelson
บุตร 4, including Tui Atua Tupua Tamasese Efi
 
Samoan high chiefs Tupua Tamasese Meaʻole (second from right) and Malietoa Tanumafili II (fifth from left) welcomed to Christchurch in 1945 by Mayor Ernest Andrews (fourth from left) and Deputy-Mayor Melville Lyons (right)

Tupua Tamasese Mea'ole ข้อผิดพลาด Lua: expandTemplate: template "อักษรท้ายนาม/NZL" does not exist (3 June 1905 – 5 April 1963) was a Western Samoan paramount chief. He held the royal title of Tupua Tamasese from 1929 to 1963, and O le Ao o le Malo (Head of State) jointly with Malietoa Tanumafili II from 1962 until his death the following year.

Biographyแก้ไข

He was born in Vaimoso 1905 as the one of three sons of the paramount chief Tupua Tamasese Lealofi II. He was educated at the Marist school in Apia.[1] In 1929, he was installed as Tupua Tamasese when his elder brother and Mau leader, Tupua Tamasese Lealofi III was assassinated by colonial police during a Mau parade in Apia.[1]

He married Noue in 1934, a daughter of Olaf Frederick Nelson.[1] The couple had four children; two daughters and two sons.[1] In 1936 he was appointed to the Legislative Council, and in 1938 he was appointed as one of the Fautua (advisor to the Administrator). In the same year he became president of the Mau.[1] As a Fautua, he continued to serve in the Legislative Council and its successor, the Legislative Assembly until 1957.[1] He was also a member of the Council of State and the Executive Council until 1959.[1]

Away from politics, Tamasese was involved in business, serving as chair of the board of the Western Samoa Trust Estates Corporation, a director of the Bank of Western Samoa and a member of the Copra Board.[1] In the 1957 New Year Honours he was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire.[2]

In preparations for independence, Tamasese chaired the constitutional conventions of 1954 and 1960.[1] When Western Samoa attained independence in 1962, the new constitution made Tupua Tamasese and Malietoa Tanumafili II (the two Fautua) joint heads of state.[1]

Upon Tamasese's death in April 1963, Malietoa continued to serve as sole head of state, whilst the title of Tupua Tamasese was passed to his eldest nephew, Tupua Tamasese Lealofi IV, who would go on to become the second Prime Minister of Samoa.

Referencesแก้ไข

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 Tamasese: Architect of West Samoan Independence Pacific Islands Monthly, May 1963, pp41–47
  2. "No. 40962". The London Gazette (Supplement). 1 January 1957. p. 46.

แม่แบบ:O le Ao o le Malo of Samoa

มาลีเอโตอา ตานูมาฟีลีที่ 2 (ทำให้ดี)แก้ไข

Malietoa Tanumafili II
 
Tanumafili on Sāmoan Independence Day,
1 January 1962
O le Ao o le Malo of Samoa
ดำรงตำแหน่ง
1 January 1962 – 11 May 2007
Serving with Tupua Tamasese Meaʻole until 5 April 1963
นายกรัฐมนตรี
ก่อนหน้า Office Established
(John Bird Wright as High Commissioner)
ถัดไป Tupua Tamasese Tupuola Tufuga Efi
Malietoa
ดำรงตำแหน่ง
7 January 1940 – 11 May 2007
ก่อนหน้า Malietoa Tanumafili I
ถัดไป Malietoa Molī
ข้อมูลส่วนบุคคล
เกิด 4 มกราคม ค.ศ. 1913(1913-01-04)
Samoa
เสียชีวิต 11 พฤษภาคม ค.ศ. 2007 (94 ปี)
Apia, Samoa
ที่ฝังร่าง Mulinu'u
คู่สมรส Le Afioga i le Masiofo, Lili Tunu
บุตร 11

Malietoa Tanumafili II GCMG CBE (4 January 1913 – 11 May 2007), addressed Susuga Malietoa Tanumafili II, was the Malietoa, the title of one of Samoa's four paramount chiefs,[1] and the head of state, or O le Ao o le Malo, a position that he held for life, of Samoa from 1962 to 2007. He was co-head of state in 1962 with the tama-a-'aiga Tupua Tamasese Mea'ole and became the sole head of state on 15 April 1963 upon the death of his counterpart.[2] At the time of his death, he was the oldest national leader in the world, and was also the last incumbent president-for-life in the world.

The Malietoa is one of the four tama-a-'aiga (maximal lineage) titles of Samoa, alongside Tupua Tamasese, Mata-afa and Tuimalealiifano.[3]

Following an extended period deliberation, the Malietoa title passed to his eldest son, Malietoa Fa’amausili Molī.

Early and personal lifeแก้ไข

He was born in 1913 as the son and third child of his parents, Malietoa Tanumafili I and Momoe Lupeuluiva Meleisea.[4] He was chosen as the Mālietoa in 1940 following his father's death on 5 July 1939.

Tanumafili was educated at the government run Leififi School in Samoa. He went on to enroll at St. Stephen's School and Wesley College in Pukekohe, both of which are in New Zealand. Malietoa was an active athlete during his younger years. His favourite sports included boxing, rugby and cricket.[5] Malietoa's interest in sports continued throughout his life and he was an avid golfer well into his 90s. He could often be seen driving his golf cart around Samoa.[1]

His wife, Lili Tunu, died in 1986.[6] Tanumafili had eleven children during his life: Suʻa Vainuupo, Afioga Malietoa Papaliʻitele Faamausili Molī (the current holder of the Malietoa title), Papaliʻitele Titiuatoa, Papaliʻitele Ioane, Papaliʻitele Douglas (sons) and Seiuli Tutai, Lola Tosi and Momoe (daughters). One child died in infancy, while two of his sons, Papalii Laupepa and Papaliitele Eti, died in 1985 and 2005 respectively. At the time of his death, he had four surviving children - two sons and two daughters.[7][8][9]

Malietoa Tanumafili II was a follower of the Baháʼí Faith. He was the first President and the first serving head of state to be a member of that religion. The Baháʼí House of Worship in Tiapapata, eight kilometres from the country's capital of Apia, was dedicated by him in 1984.

Deathแก้ไข

Malietoa Tanumafili II died at 18:45 on Friday 11 May 2007, at the Tupua Tamasese Meaole National Hospital at Moto'otua in Apia, Samoa. He was being treated as a patient for pneumonia at the hospital for approximately a week.[10] The cause of his death was from a heart attack.

His death was announced by Samoan Secretary of State Vaasatia Poloma Komiti on SBC TV1. "It is with deepest regret that we inform you of the passing of our Head of State Malietoa Tanumafili II."[11]

Malietoa Tanumafili II was the world's third longest serving living head of state at the time of his death in May 2007 after Thailand's King Bhumibol Adulyadej, who reigned from 1946 until his death in 2016 and Britain's Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952.,[12] as well as the longest serving incumbent President (succeeded by Gabon's Omar Bongo).

Funeralแก้ไข

Samoa entered a state of official mourning from the time of the Malietoa's death until his official funeral. All Samoan flags were lowered to half mast in his honour and remembrance. According to tradition, thousands of Samoans were expected to wear white and black as a sign of respect for the Malietoa from 15 May until his state funeral on 18 May. The government of Samoa encouraged traditional Samoan dress for the funeral. Samoans were requested specifically to wear "a black lavalava or sulu and a white top with traditional elei patterns." Samoans were also asked to include the teuila flower, the national flower of Samoa, with their mourning attire.[13]

The Malietoa's body was then moved to the Samoan Parliament to lie in state on 17 May. His funeral was held on 18 May in Apia.[14]

Honoursแก้ไข

Queen Elizabeth II visited Samoa for a single day in 1977 as part of her visit to the South Pacific on board the Royal Yacht Britannia. While in Samoa, Elizabeth presented Malietoa with the Collar Badge and Star of a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George.[15]

Also bestowed on Malietoa was the title of Honorary Commander of the Order of the British Empire during his life. แม่แบบ:Politics of Samoa

Referencesแก้ไข

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Malietoa Tanumafili II (Obituary)". The Economist. The Economist print edition. 24 May 2007. สืบค้นเมื่อ 12 June 2007.
  2. Western Samoa Products and English, Samoan Languages Archived 23 April 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  3. Western Samoa. Land and Titles Court. (1949–1990). Documents relating to Tamaʻaiga titles disputes, Tuimalealiʻifano title. OCLC 39644002.
  4. "Genealogy". คลังข้อมูลเก่า เก็บจาก แหล่งเดิม เมื่อ 23 April 2017. สืบค้นเมื่อ 5 February 2017.
  5. "Samoa's King Malietoa Tanumafili II, 94". The Honolulu Advertiser. Associated Press. 13 May 2007. สืบค้นเมื่อ 24 May 2007.
  6. King Malietoa Tanumafili II of Samoa dead at 94 – The Honolulu Advertiser – Hawaii's Newspaper
  7. "Archived copy". คลังข้อมูลเก่า เก็บจาก แหล่งเดิม เมื่อ 20 May 2007. สืบค้นเมื่อ 14 May 2007.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Profile
  8. "Samoan king dies at the age of 94". The Sydney Morning Herald. 13 May 2007. สืบค้นเมื่อ 13 May 2007.
  9. Tautua-Fanene, Deidre (17 August 2018). "Malietoa title bestowed at Malie". Samoa Observer. คลังข้อมูลเก่า เก็บจาก แหล่งเดิม เมื่อ 14 August 2019. สืบค้นเมื่อ 14 August 2019.
  10. Sagapolutele, Fili (12 May 2007). "Samoan Head of State Passes Away". Pacific Magazine. คลังข้อมูลเก่า เก็บจาก แหล่งเดิม เมื่อ 27 September 2007. สืบค้นเมื่อ 12 May 2007.
  11. Jackson, Cherelle (13 May 2007). "Samoa's Head of State Malietoa dies aged 95". The New Zealand Herald. สืบค้นเมื่อ 12 May 2007.
  12. "Samoa's king, one of world's longest reigning monarchs, dies". International Herald Tribune. Associated Press. 12 May 2007. สืบค้นเมื่อ 13 May 2007.
  13. "Thousands expected to pay respect and honour to former Samoa Head of State". Radio New Zealand International. Radio New Zealand International. 15 May 2007. สืบค้นเมื่อ 5 June 2007.
  14. "Samoan leader laid to rest". The New Zealand Herald. NZPA. 19 May 2007. สืบค้นเมื่อ 19 October 2011.
  15. "Samoa King Dies". Herald Sun. Associated Press. 13 May 2007. สืบค้นเมื่อ 13 May 2007.

External linksแก้ไข

แม่แบบ:O le Ao o le Malo of Samoa

ไวรัสโรคระบาด เอช 1 เอ็น 1/09แก้ไข

หน้านี้กล่าวถึงไวรัสที่ก่อให้เกิดการระบาดของไข้หวัดใหญ่สายพันธุ์ใหม่ 2009 สำหรับการระบาดของโรค ดูที่ การระบาดของไข้หวัดใหญ่สายพันธุ์ใหม่ 2009
ไวรัสโรคระบาด เอช 1 เอ็น 1/09
 
ภาพของไวรัสไข้หวัดใหญ่เอช 1 เอ็น 1 จากกล้องจุลทรรศน์อิเล็กตรอนที่ห้องปฏิบัติการไข้หวัดใหญ่ศูนย์ควบคุมและป้องกันโรคสหรัฐอเมริกา ซึ่งมีขนาดเส้นผ่านศูนย์กลาง 80–120 นาโนเมตร[1]
การจำแนกชนิดไวรัส  
ขาดข้อมูล (กรุณาคัดลอกจากหน้านี้ในวิกิพีเดียภาษาอังกฤษ มาที่หน้านี้):
ขาดแม่แบบอนุกรมวิธาน ทำตามขั้นตอนด้านบนเพื่อสร้าง
ไข้หวัดใหญ่ชนิดเอ เอช 1 เอ็น 1

ไวรัสโรคระบาด เอช 1 เอ็น 1/09 (อังกฤษ: pandemic H1N1/09 virus) เป็นสายพันธุ์ไข้หวัดใหญ่ชนิดเอ เอช 1 เอ็น 1ที่มีต้นกำเนิดจากสุกร ซึ่งมีส่วนเกี่ยวข้องต่อการระบาดของไข้หวัดใหญ่สายพันธุ์ใหม่ 2009 สื่อทั่วไปเรียกไวรัสชนิดนี้ว่า ไข้หวัดสุกร สำหรับชื่ออื่น ดูส่วนระบบการตั้งชื่อข้างล่าง

ลักษณะไวรัสแก้ไข

ไวรัสนี้เป็นไวรัสไข้หวัดใหญ่สายพันธุ์ใหม่[2] ซึ่งไม่มีวัคซีนกำจัดฤดูไข้หวัดใหญ่ที่มีอยู่ในตอนนั้นป้องกันได้ งานวิจัยจากศูนย์ควบคุมและป้องกันโรคสหรัฐอเมริกา (CDC) ของประเทศสหรัฐที่เผยแพร่ในเดือนพฤษภาคม ค.ศ. 2009 พบว่าเด็กไม่มีภูมิคุ้มกันที่มีมาก่อนต่อสายพันธุ์ใหม่ แต่เป็นผู้ใหญ่ โดยเฉพาะคนที่มีอายุมากกว่า 60 มีภูมิคุ้มกันอยู่บ้าง เด็กไม่แสดงปฏิกิริยาแอนตีบอดีข้ามกันต่อสายพันธุ์ใหม่ ในขณะที่ผู้ใหญ่อายุ 18 ถึง 64 พบร้อยละ 6–9 และผู้สูงอายุร้อยละ 34[3][4] รายงานการวิเคราะห์ช่วงแรกส่วนใหญ่บันทึกว่า สายพันธุ์นี้มียีนจากไวรัสไข้หวัด 5 ชนิด: North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and two swine influenza viruses typically found in Asia and Europe.[5] Further analysis showed that several of the proteins of the virus are most similar to strains that cause mild symptoms in humans, leading virologist Wendy Barclay to suggest that the virus was unlikely to cause severe symptoms for most people.[6] Other leading researchers indicated that all segments of the virus were in fact swine in origin, despite it being a multiple reassortment.[7][8] The first complete genome sequence of the pandemic strain was deposited in public databases on April 27, 2009, by scientists from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta.[9] Scientists in Winnipeg later completed the full genetic sequencing of viruses from Mexico and Canada on May 6, 2009.[10]

Viral originsแก้ไข

Analysis of the genetic divergence of the virus in samples from different cases indicated that the virus jumped to humans in 2008, probably after June, and not later than the end of November,[11] likely around September 2008.[12][13] A report by researchers at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in 2016 found that the 2009 H1N1 virus likely originated from pigs in a very small region of central Mexico.[14]

On April 17, 2009, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) determined that two cases of febrile respiratory illness occurring in children who resided in adjacent counties in Southern California were caused by infection with a swine influenza A (H1N1) virus. The viruses from the two cases were closely related genetically, resistant to amantadine and rimantadine, and contain a unique combination of gene segments that previously had not been reported among swine or human influenza viruses in the United States or elsewhere. After the emergence of the novel virus in the spring of 2009, it spread quickly across the United States, Mexico and the world.[15][16]

In late April, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared its first ever "public health emergency of international concern", or PHEIC,[17] and in June, the WHO and the U.S. CDC stopped counting cases and declared the outbreak a pandemic.[18]

On June 23, 2009, The New York Times reported that U.S. federal agriculture officials believed that, "contrary to the popular assumption that the new swine flu pandemic arose on factory farms in Mexico", now believe it "most likely emerged in pigs in Asia, but then traveled to North America in a human". They emphasized that there was no way to prove their hypothesis but said there is no evidence this new virus, which combines Eurasian and North American genes, has never circulated in North American pigs, "while there is tantalizing evidence that a closely related 'sister virus' has circulated in Asia".[19] However, a subsequent report by researchers at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in 2016 found that the 2009 H1N1 virus likely originated in central Mexico.[14]

In early June 2009, using computational methods developed over the previous ten years, an international team of researchers attempted to reconstruct the origins and timescale of the 2009 flu pandemic. Oliver Pybus of Oxford University's Department of Zoology, and part of the research team, claims "Our results show that this strain has been circulating among pigs, possibly among multiple continents, for many years prior to its transmission to humans." The research team who worked on this case also believed it was "derived from several viruses circulating in swine", and that the initial transmission to humans occurred several months before recognition of the outbreak. The team concluded that "despite widespread influenza surveillance in humans, the lack of systematic swine surveillance allowed for the undetected persistence and evolution of this potentially pandemic strain for many years."[20]

 
Structure of the influenza virion. The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) proteins show on the surface of the particle. The viral RNAs that make up the genome show as red coils inside the particle and bound to ribonucleoproteins (RNPs).

According to the researchers, movement of live pigs between Eurasia and North America "seems to have facilitated the mixing of diverse swine influenza viruses, leading to the multiple reassortment events associated with the genesis of the (new H1N1) strain". They also said this new pandemic "provides further evidence of the role of domestic pigs in the ecosystem of influenza A".[21]

In November 2009, a study was published in Virology Journal in which it was suggested that the virus may be the product of three strains from three continents that swapped genes in a lab or a vaccine-making plant, and subsequently "escaped". The study followed debate among researchers in May 2009, when the authors asked the World Health Organization (WHO) to consider the hypothesis. After reviewing the initial paper, WHO and other organizations concluded the pandemic strain was a naturally-occurring virus and not laboratory-derived.[22][23]

Virulenceแก้ไข

The virulence of swine flu virus is mild and the mortality rates are very low.[24][25]

In mid-2009, the U.S. CDC noted that most infections were mild, similar to seasonal flu, and that recovery tended to be fairly quick.[26] The number of deaths ข้อมูลเมื่อ กันยายน 2009 was said to be a tiny fraction of the annual number of deaths from seasonal flu.[27] However, comparisons of human fatality figures with seasonal influenza are prone to underestimate impact of the pandemic,[28] and the pandemic H1N1/09 virus was in fact the dominant strain of influenza causing illness in the 2009/10 flu season.[29]

Research carried out at Imperial College London[30] has shown that, unlike seasonal flu, H1N1/09 can infect cells deep in the lungs. Seasonal flu can infect only cells with receptor type a2-6 which are typically located in the nose and throat but H1N1/09 can also infect cells with receptor type a2-3. This may explain why some patients experience severe respiratory symptoms. (The H5N1 virus is also able to infect cells deep in the lungs with receptor type a2-3 but cannot infect cells with receptor type a2-6 making it less contagious than H1N1/09.)

ข้อมูลเมื่อ กันยายน 2009, most people infected by this flu suffered a mild illness, but the small minority hospitalized were often severely ill. Arand Kumar, an intensive care expert at the University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada, said "this pandemic is like two diseases; either you're off work for a few days or you go to hospital, often to the intensive-care unit (ICU). There's no middle ground." In the southern hemisphere 15 to 33% of hospitalized cases went to the ICU in July and August 2009. Unlike H5N1 avian flu and SARS which provoke a runaway body-wide immune response, H1N1/09 destroys the lungs' alveoli, often causing acute respiratory distress syndrome, which kills in half of all cases. Preliminary research suggests that severity is linked to a genetic variation in immune systems.[31]

From April 2009 to November 2009, 3,900 people died of the H1N1 pandemic virus in the U.S. This is sometimes compared to the 36,000 people per year who die from the "common flu", mostly in winter, although this number is an estimate.[32] The death rate of H1N1 in the U.S. was calculated as less than 0.02% from November 2009 figures from the CDC,[33] and has been explicitly calculated as 0.026% in England.[34]

Vaccineแก้ไข

 
2,500 people line up in a mall in Texas City, Texas to receive the H1N1 vaccine from the Galveston County Health Department.
ดูบทความหลักที่: 2009 flu pandemic vaccine

Existing vaccines against seasonal flu provided no protection. Vaccines were released in North America in late October. Production may be three billion doses per year rather than the earlier estimate of five billion.[35]

Mutationแก้ไข

On November 20, 2013, the Norwegian Institute of Public Health released a statement saying they had discovered a potentially significant mutation in the H1N1 influenza strain that could be responsible for causing the severest symptoms among those infected. In the statement they said "The mutation could be affecting the virus' ability to go deeper into the respiratory system, thus causing more serious illness".[36]

The World Health Organization said the mutation did not appear to be widespread in Norway and the virus in its mutated form remained sensitive to antivirals and pandemic vaccines. A similar mutation had been detected in H1N1 viruses circulating in several other countries, including China and the United States, in severe as well as in some mild cases. "Although further investigation is under way, no evidence currently suggests that these mutations are leading to an unusual increase in the number of H1N1 infections or a greater number of severe or fatal cases."[36]

On December 2, 2009, the WHO announced that they had been informed of two recent clusters of patients infected with oseltamivir-resistant H1N1 viruses. Both clusters, detected in the UK (including Wales) and in North Carolina, occurred in a single ward and involved patients whose immune systems were severely compromised or suppressed. Transmission of resistant virus from one patient to another is suspected in both outbreaks.

Resistanceแก้ไข

ข้อมูลเมื่อ ธันวาคม 2010, the WHO reported 314 samples of 2009 pandemic H1N1 flu tested worldwide have shown resistance to oseltamivir (Tamiflu).[37] This was not totally unexpected as 99.6% of the seasonal H1N1 flu strains tested have developed resistance to amantadine and rimantadine.[38] ข้อมูลเมื่อ August 2009 no circulating flu had yet shown any resistance to zanamivir (Relenza), the other available anti-viral.[39]

Species affectedแก้ไข

Swine

Before being transmitted to humans, a H1N1 type virus is known to have circulated in swine. In August 2007, about 25 people and 160 pigs developed flu at a county fair in Ohio. Analysis showed they were infected with the same strain—a H1N1 type containing genes of human, bird and swine origin. A 2004 study found that in Iowa, 20 percent of swine veterinarians and 3 percent of meatpackers, but no university workers, had antibodies in their blood indicating they had been infected with swine flu. Another study, of 804 rural Iowans, found that pig farmers were 50 times more likely, and their spouses about 30 times more likely, than university workers to carry swine flu antibodies.[40] Pigs are also known to have been infected by humans.[41]

Humans

Humans have been affected since early 2009. The November 27, 2009 worldwide update by the U.N.'s World Health Organization (WHO) states that "more than 207 countries and overseas territories or communities have reported laboratory confirmed cases of pandemic influenza H1N1 2009, including over 7,820 deaths". The WHO has also tracked more than 622,482 laboratory-confirmed cases of H1N1.[42] The symptoms of this virus are identical to that of seasonal influenza.

Birds

In late August 2009, the government of Chile discovered that the human H1N1/09 virus had jumped, unmutated, to birds, "opening a new chapter in the global epidemic". Top flu and animal-health experts with the WHO and the CDC were monitoring the situation closely. They said the infected turkeys had suffered only mild effects, easing concern about a potentially dangerous development. Chile's turkey meat remained safe to eat, they said, and so far there had been no signs of a potentially dangerous mutation.[43] Virus experts were concerned that a more dangerous and easily transmitted strain could emerge if H1N1/09 combines again with avian flu, which is far more virulent but much less contagious to humans. By October 2009, another outbreak was identified at a turkey breeder in Ontario, Canada.[44]

Other animals

In October 2009, a ferret exhibiting flu symptoms was confirmed to have contracted the H1N1 virus from its owner in Oregon.[45] In November 2009, a case of novel H1N1 was confirmed in a household cat.[46][47][48] Although the earliest cat fatality from the H1N1 virus in the U.S. occurred in Pennsylvania,[49] the Oregon Veterinary Medical Association was the first to confirm a cat fatality in the U.S. The association recommended that cat owners with flu symptoms avoid touching cat's eyes, nose, and mouth while sick. They recommended thoroughly washing hands after handling a sick pet as it might be possible for cats to transmit the virus to humans. This was the third confirmed case of H1N1 in a cat in the U.S.; other cases have occurred in Utah and Iowa.[50] The first case of a dog with H1N1 was reported in December 2009.[51] On July 22, 2011 the Norwegian Veterinary Institute reported the first occurrence of 2009-H1N1 influenza virus in minks.[52]

Nomenclatureแก้ไข

The initial outbreak of a novel[2] swine-origin H1N1 flu pandemic in 2009 and the virus strain that caused it were called by many names. In July 2009, WHO experts named the virus "pandemic H1N1/09 virus" to distinguish it from both various seasonal H1N1 virus strains and the 1918 flu pandemic H1N1 strain.

Some authorities objected to calling the flu outbreak "swine flu". U.S. Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack expressed concerns that this would lead to the misconception that pork is unsafe for consumption.[53] The CDC began referring to it as "novel influenza A (H1N1)"; "A/H1N1" is sometimes used.[2][54] The CDC stopped using the nomenclature "novel H1N1" and updated various web pages to reflect the change to "2009 H1N1 Flu". In the Netherlands it was originally called "pig flu" but, later called "Mexican flu" by the National Health Institute and in the media. South Korea and Israel briefly considered calling it the "Mexican virus".[55] Later the South Korean press used "SI", short for "swine influenza". Taiwan suggested the names "H1N1 flu" or "new flu", which most local media adopted.[56] The World Organization for Animal Health proposed the name "North American influenza".[57] The European Commission adopted the term "novel flu virus".[58]

The name A(H1N1)pdm09 later came into widespread use, sometimes qualified as A/California/7/2009(H1N1)pdm, etc.[59][60]

Geneticsแก้ไข

Genetic origins of the 2009 swine flu virus[61]
HA Hemagglutinin swine (H1) North America
NA Neuraminidase swine (N1) Europe
PA RNA polymerase subunit PA[62][63] avian North America
PB1 RNA polymerase subunit PB1[64] human 1993 H3N2 strain
PB2 RNA polymerase subunit PB2[65] avian North America
NP Nucleoprotein[66] swine North America
M Matrix protein M1, M2 swine Eurasia
NS/NEP Non-structural proteins NS1,
NEP (Nuclear Export Protein)[67][68]
swine North America
Source: "The identity card of a composite virus" (ภาษาฝรั่งเศส). Le Monde. 29 April 2009.

On April 24, 2009, the U.S. CDC determined that seven samples from suspected cases in Mexico matched the strain that had infected patients in Texas and California with no known linkages to animals or one another; the strain appeared to be spreading from human to human.[69][70] The CDC determined that the strain contained genes from four different flu viruses—North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and swine influenza virus typically found in Asia and Europe—"an unusually mongrelised mix of genetic sequences".[5] A CDC investigative team arrived in Mexico City on April 25, 2009 to work with Mexican counterparts to study the virus.[71]

Pigs are susceptible to influenza viruses that can also infect both humans and birds, so they may act as a "mixing vessel" in which reassortment can occur between flu viruses of several species.[72][73] Reassortment is a process that happens if two different types of influenza virus infect a single cell and it can produce a new strain of influenza. This is because the virus genome is split between eight independent pieces of RNA, which allows pieces of RNA from different viruses to mix and form a novel type of virus as new virus particles are being assembled.[74] This new strain appears to be a result of the reassortment of two swine influenza viruses, one from North America and one from Europe.[75] But the North American pig strain was itself the product of previous reassortments, and has carried an avian PB2 gene for at least ten years and a human PB1 gene since 1993.[76] These genes were passed on to the new virus.[77][78]

Gene sequences for every viral gene were made available through the Global Initiative on Sharing Avian Influenza Data (GISAID).[79][80] A preliminary analysis found that the hemagglutinin (HA) gene was similar to that of swine flu viruses present in U.S. pigs since 1999, but the neuraminidase (NA) and matrix protein (M) genes resembled versions present in European swine flu isolates. While viruses with this genetic makeup had not previously been found to be circulating in humans or pigs, there is no formal national surveillance system to determine what viruses are circulating in pigs in the U.S.[81] So far, little is known about the spread of the virus in any pig population. A preliminary analysis has also shown that several of the proteins involved in the pathophysiology of the virus are most similar to strains that cause mild symptoms in humans. This suggests the virus is unlikely to cause severe infections similar to those caused by the 1918 pandemic flu virus or the H5N1 avian influenza.[82]

Late on May 6, 2009, Canada's National Microbiology Laboratory first completed the sequencing of Mexican samples of the virus, publishing the result to GenBank as A/Mexico/InDRE4487/2009(H1N1).[83] This was later shown to be nearly identical to A/California/07/2009 (H1N1), the strain from California sequenced and published by the CDC on 27 April.[9] Samples from Mexico, Nova Scotia and Ontario had the same sequence, ruling out genetic explanations for the greater severity of the Mexican cases.[84][85]

The genetic divergence of the virus in samples from different cases has been analysed by an international collaboration who found that the virus jumped to humans in 2008, probably after June, and not later than the end of November.[11] The research also indicated the virus had been latent in pigs for several months prior to the outbreak, suggesting a need to increase agricultural surveillance to prevent future outbreaks.[20]

See alsoแก้ไข

Referencesแก้ไข

  1. International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. "The Universal Virus Database, version 4: Influenza A". คลังข้อมูลเก่า เก็บจาก แหล่งเดิม เมื่อ 13 January 2010.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "Update: Novel Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infections—Worldwide, May 6, 2009". Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 8 May 2009. สืบค้นเมื่อ 8 November 2009.
  3. "Some immunity to novel H1N1 flu found in seniors".
  4. "Swine Influenza A (H1N1) Infection in Two Children—Southern California, March–April 2009". Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 21 April 2009.
  5. 5.0 5.1 MacKenzie, Debora (27 May 2009). "Deadly new flu virus in US and Mexico may go pandemic". New Scientist. คลังข้อมูลเก่า เก็บจาก แหล่งเดิม เมื่อ 28 April 2009. สืบค้นเมื่อ 8 November 2009.
  6. Emma Wilkinson (2 May 2009). "What scientists know about swine flu". BBC News.
  7. Seth Borenstein (1 May 2009). "Swine flu name change? Flu genes spell pig".
  8. Rabadan R (28 April 2009). "PRO/AH/EDR> Influenza A (H1N1) "swine flu": worldwide (04)". คลังข้อมูลเก่า เก็บจาก แหล่งเดิม เมื่อ 27 August 2009. สืบค้นเมื่อ 30 November 2009.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Zhang H, Chen L (August 2009). "Possible origin of current influenza A H1N1 viruses" (PDF). The Lancet. 9 (8): 456–57. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(09)70181-1. PMID 19628166. คลังข้อมูลเก่า เก็บจาก แหล่งเดิม (PDF) เมื่อ 7 October 2009. สืบค้นเมื่อ 1 December 2009.
  10. "H1N1 virus genome: 'This is a world first'". Independent Online (South Africa) (Press release). Cape Town. Agence France Press. 6 May 2009. คลังข้อมูลเก่า เก็บจาก แหล่งเดิม เมื่อ 2 August 2012. สืบค้นเมื่อ 8 November 2009.
  11. 11.0 11.1 MacKenzie, Debora (9 May 2009). "Swine flu: Can science save us from the second wave?". New Scientist (2707): 4–5. doi:10.1016/S0262-4079(09)61215-X. คลังข้อมูลเก่า เก็บจาก แหล่งเดิม เมื่อ 9 May 2009. Alt URL
  12. Check, Hayden Erica (5 May 2009). "The turbulent history of the A(H1N1) virus". Nature. 459 (7243): 14–5. doi:10.1038/459014a. ISSN 1744-7933. PMC 7095218. PMID 19424121.
  13. Cohen Jon; Enserink Martin (1 May 2009). "As Swine Flu Circles Globe, Scientists Grapple With Basic Questions". Science. 324 (5927): 572–3. doi:10.1126/science.324_572. PMID 19407164.
  14. 14.0 14.1 "2009 swine flu pandemic originated in Mexico, researchers discover". Science Daily. 27 June 2016. สืบค้นเมื่อ 18 March 2020.
  15. "Swine Influenza A (H1N1) Infection in Two Children—Southern California, March–April 2009". เก็บ จากแหล่งเดิมเมื่อ 26 April 2009.
  16. "2009 H1N1 Pandemic (H1N1pdm09 virus)—CDC". 11 June 2019. เก็บ จากแหล่งเดิมเมื่อ 2 July 2019.   บทความนี้รวมเอาเนื้อความจากแหล่งอ้างอิงนี้ ซึ่งเป็นสาธารณสมบัติ
  17. "WHO—Swine influenza". เก็บ จากแหล่งเดิมเมื่อ 6 May 2014.
  18. Chan, Margaret (11 June 2009). "World now at the start of 2009 influenza pandemic". World Health Organization (WHO). เก็บ จากแหล่งเดิมเมื่อ 22 October 2009. สืบค้นเมื่อ 25 October 2009.
  19. McNeil, Jr., Donald G. (23 June 2009). "In New Theory, Swine Flu Started in Asia, Not Mexico". The New York Times. เก็บ จากแหล่งเดิมเมื่อ 7 August 2009. สืบค้นเมื่อ 1 September 2009.
  20. 20.0 20.1 Smith GJ, Vijaykrishna D, Bahl J, Lycett SJ, Worobey M, Pybus OG, Ma SK, Cheung CL, Raghwani J, Bhatt S, Peiris JS, Guan Y, Rambaut A (11 June 2009). "Origins and evolutionary genomics of the 2009 swine-origin H1N1 influenza A epidemic". Nature. 459 (7250): 1122–25. Bibcode:2009Natur.459.1122S. doi:10.1038/nature08182. PMID 19516283. Lay summary.
  21. "New flu has been around for years in pigs—study" Reuters, June 11, 2009
  22. Virology Journal http://www.virologyj.com/content/6/1/207 Archived 2011-07-18 at the Wayback Machine.
  23. Bloomberg.com https://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601124&sid=ajw2AS.d1wK8
  24. Wang, Taia T.; Palese, Peter (June 2009). "Unraveling the mystery of swine influenza virus". Cell. 137 (6): 983–85. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.05.032. PMID 19524497. S2CID 2861338. Unknown parameter |name-list-style= ignored (help)
  25. Fitzgerald DA (September 2009). "Human swine influenza A [H1N1]: practical advice for clinicians early in the pandemic". Paediatr Respir Rev. 10 (3): 154–58. doi:10.1016/j.prrv.2009.06.005. PMID 19651387.
  26. "Swine flu may have infected more than 100,000 Americans". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. 17 May 2009.
  27. Lisberg, Adam (7 June 2009). "Swine flue may be scary, but 250 times as many die from regular flu (error in original title)". Daily News (New York).
  28. World Health Organization (22 December 2009). "Comparing deaths from pandemic and seasonal influenza". WHO. สืบค้นเมื่อ 15 April 2010.
  29. For example, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (9 April 2010). "2009 H1N1 Flu:Situation Update". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. สืบค้นเมื่อ 15 April 2010. Most flu continues to be 2009 H1N1.
  30. Childs RA; Palma AS; Wharton S; และคณะ (September 2009). "Receptor-binding specificity of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus determined by carbohydrate microarray". Nat. Biotechnol. 27 (9): 797–99. doi:10.1038/nbt0909-797. PMC 3771066. PMID 19741625. Unknown parameter |name-list-style= ignored (help)
  31. MacKenzie, Debora (12 September 2009). "Don't be fooled: Swine flu still poses a deadly threat". New Scientist (2725): 11.
  32. "Seasonal influenza—flu symptoms & severity". CDC. 2009. สืบค้นเมื่อ 13 September 2009. An average of about 36,000 people per year in the United States die from influenza-related causes
  33. "CDC's swine flu toll: 4,000 dead, 22 million ill". Associated Press. 13 November 2009. คลังข้อมูลเก่า เก็บจาก แหล่งเดิม เมื่อ 30 January 2013. สืบค้นเมื่อ 13 November 2009. Estimates of deaths caused by the swine flu have grown to nearly 4,000 since April . . . Swine flu has sickened about 22 million Americans since April
  34. Liam J Donaldson; Paul D Rutter; Benjamin M Ellis; และคณะ (10 December 2009). "Mortality from pandemic A/H1N1 2009 influenza in England: public health surveillance study". British Medical Journal. 339: b5213. doi:10.1136/bmj.b5213. PMC 2791802. PMID 20007665.
  35. "AFP: WHO cuts swine flu vaccine production estimate, 24 September 2009".
  36. 36.0 36.1 ABC News http://www.abcnews.go.com/Health/wireStory?id=9138409 Archived June 29, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  37. "Update on oseltamivir resistance to influenza H1N1 (2009) viruses" (PDF). World Health Organization (WHO). 15 December 2010. สืบค้นเมื่อ 30 December 2010.
  38. "2008–2009 Influenza Season Week 39 ending October 3, 2009". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 9 October 2009. สืบค้นเมื่อ 20 November 2009.
  39. "2008–2009 Influenza Season Week 32 ending August 15, 2009". Flu Activity & Surveillance. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 21 August 2009. สืบค้นเมื่อ 4 December 2009.
  40. The Washington Post https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/04/24/AR2009042403852.html
  41. CDC Swine Flu https://www.cdc.gov/flu/swine/pdf/brochure.pdf
  42. "Situation updates—Pandemic (H1N1) 2009".
  43. "Chile confirms swine flu in turkeys" Associated Press, August 21, 2009
  44. "H1N1 in turkeys poses 'minimal' human risk: official". CBC News. 20 October 2009. คลังข้อมูลเก่า เก็บจาก แหล่งเดิม เมื่อ 22 October 2009.
  45. "Ferret gets swine flu from its owner, a first" The Oregonian, Oct. 20, 2009
  46. Amanda Gardner. Rest Easy. When It Comes to Swine Flu, Your Pet Is Safe. HealthDay on US News and World Report. November 4, 2009.
  47. Murray, Louise (5 November 2009). "Can pets get swine flu?". The New York Times. สืบค้นเมื่อ 8 November 2009.
  48. Parker-Pope, Tara (5 November 2009). "The cat who got swine flu". The New York Times. สืบค้นเมื่อ 8 November 2009.
  49. Campagnolo, Enzo R. (February 2011). "Fatal pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza a virus infection in a pennsylvania domestic cat". Zoonoses and Public Health. 58 (7): 500–07. doi:10.1111/j.1863-2378.2011.01390.x. PMID 21824345. S2CID 21165042. Unknown parameter |name-list-style= ignored (help)
  50. "H1N1-infected cat dies in Oregon" Veterinary News, Nov. 19, 2009
  51. rep am.com articles http://www.rep-am.com/articles/2009/12/28/news/national/457558.txt Archived 2011-09-28 at the Wayback Machine.
  52. Norske Veterinærinstituttet. 2011. Influensavirus hos oppdrettsmink, http://www.vetinst.no/layout/set/print/Nyheter/Influensavirus-hos-oppdrettsmink Archived 2011-10-06 at the Wayback Machine., posted 22.07.2011.
  53. "US looks to change 'swine flu' name". AFP. 29 April 2009. สืบค้นเมื่อ 29 April 2009.
  54. "2009 H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  55. "South Korea changed the name from "swine flu" to "Mexican virus"" (ภาษาจีน). BCC (Taiwan). 29 April 2009.
  56. "Renamed swine flu certain to hit Taiwan". The China Post. 29 April 2009.
  57. Bradsher Keith (28 April 2009). "The naming of swine flu, a curious matter". The New York Times. สืบค้นเมื่อ 8 November 2009.
  58. Pilkington, Ed (28 April 2009). "What's in a name? Governments debate 'swine flu' versus 'Mexican' flu". The Guardian. London. สืบค้นเมื่อ 8 November 2009.
  59. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2009). "Update on influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccines" (PDF). MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 58 (39): 1100–01. ISSN 0149-2195. PMID 19816398. เก็บ (PDF) จากแหล่งเดิมเมื่อ June 29, 2011.
  60. CDC (11 June 2019). "2009 H1N1 Pandemic". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (ภาษาอังกฤษ). สืบค้นเมื่อ 11 June 2019.
  61. "La fiche d'identité d'un virus inédit - Planète". Le Monde.fr. 30 April 2009. สืบค้นเมื่อ 8 May 2009.
  62. Dias A, Bouvier D, Crépin T, McCarthy AA, Hart DJ, Baudin F, Cusack S, Ruigrok RW (16 April 2009). "The cap-snatching endonuclease of influenza virus polymerase resides in the PA subunit". Nature. 458 (7240): 914–8. Bibcode:2009Natur.458..914D. doi:10.1038/nature07745. PMID 19194459. S2CID 4421958.
  63. Dias, A.; Bouvier, D.; Crepin, T.; McCarthy, A.A.; Hart, D.J.; Baudin, F.; Cusack, S.; Ruigrok, R.W.H. (2009). "Influenza polymerase fragment". Protein Data Bank. doi:10.2210/pdb2w69/pdb. สืบค้นเมื่อ 28 March 2021.
  64. "Swiss-Prot: 81929174". entrez Protein. National Library of Medicine.
  65. Biswas SK, Nayak DP (October 1996). "Influenza virus polymerase basic protein 1 interacts with influenza virus polymerase basic protein 2 at multiple sites". J Virol. 70 (10): 6716–22. doi:10.1128/JVI.70.10.6716-6722.1996. PMC 190714. PMID 8794308.
  66. Ng, A.K.L.; Zhang, H.; Tan, K.; Wang, J.; Shaw, P.C. (2008). "Crystal structure of Influenza A Virus H5N1 nucleoprotein". Protein Data Bank. doi:10.2210/pdb2q06/pdb. สืบค้นเมื่อ 28 March 2021.
  67. "Nuclear export protein - Influenza A virus (strain A/Hong Kong/156/1997 H5N1 genotype Gs/Gd)". Uniprot.org. 24 January 2006. สืบค้นเมื่อ 8 May 2009.
  68. Subbarao K, Klimov A, Katz J, Regnery H, Lim W, Hall H, Perdue M, Swayne D, Bender C, Huang J, Hemphill M, Rowe T, Shaw M, Xu X, Fukuda K, Cox N (16 January 1998). "Characterization of an avian influenza A (H5N1) virus isolated from a child with a fatal respiratory illness". Science. 279 (5349): 393–396. doi:10.1126/science.279.5349.393. PMID 9430591.
  69. "CDC Briefing on Public Health Investigation of Human Cases of Swine Influenza". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 24 April 2009. สืบค้นเมื่อ 8 November 2009.
  70. "CDC says too late to contain U.S. flu outbreak". Reuters. 24 April 2009. สืบค้นเมื่อ 8 November 2009.
  71. Mark Stevenson (25 April 2009). "U.S., Mexico battle deadly flu outbreak". Associated Press.
  72. Roos Robert (20 December 2007). "New swine flu virus supports 'mixing vessel' theory". Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy (CIDRAP). สืบค้นเมื่อ 8 November 2009.
  73. Thacker E, Janke B (February 2008). "Swine influenza virus: zoonotic potential and vaccination strategies for the control of avian and swine influenzas". J Infect Dis. 197 Suppl 1: S19–24. doi:10.1086/524988. PMID 18269323.
  74. Hilleman M (19 August 2002). "Realities and enigmas of human viral influenza: pathogenesis, epidemiology and control". Vaccine. 20 (25–26): 3068–87. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(02)00254-2. PMID 12163258.
  75. Keim Brandon (28 April 2009). "Swine flu genes from pigs only, not humans or birds". Wired News.
  76. McNeil, Jr., Donald G. (30 April 2009). "Virus's tangled genes straddle continents, raising a mystery about its origins". The New York Times.
  77. Watts Susan (25 April 2009). "Experts concerned about potential flu pandemic". BBC News.
  78. Dr. Henry Niman at FluTrackers has described the homologies of the genes as PB2 Avian North America, PB1 Human circa 1993, PA Swine Eurasia and/or North America, HA Swine North America, NP Swine Eurasia and/or North America, NA Swine Eurasia, MP Swine Eurasia, NS Swine Eurasia and/or North America.[1]
  79. "Pandemic reveals strengths of new flu database". CIDRAP News. 25 June 2009.
  80. "GISAID Platform". The GISAID database is publicly accessible and all its data may be accessed by anyone who can positively identify him or herself. Some discussion of sequence homologies can be found at "FluTracker.com".. The first strains released are A/California/09/2009 7M 2009-04-15, A/Texas/05/2009 16M 2009-04-15, A/Texas/04/2009 16M 2009-04-14, A/California/07/2009 54M 2009-04-09, A/California/06/2009 41F 2009-04-16, A/California/05/2009 9F 2009-03-30, and A/California/04/2009 10M 2009-04-01.
  81. "Swine influenza A (H1N1) infection in two children—Southern California, March–April 2009". Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 22 April 2009.
  82. Emma Wilkinson (1 May 2009). "What scientists know about swine flu". BBC News.
  83. SwineFlu NLM Genomes
  84. Kirkey Sharon (6 May 2009). "Canadian lab completes sequencing of flu virus". Canwest News Service.
  85. Galloway Gloria; Walton Dawn (6 May 2009). "Canadian, Mexican flu strains match". Toronto: The Globe and Mail.

External linksแก้ไข

อัลฆ็อยบ์แก้ไข

Al-Ghaib is an Arabic expression used to convey that something is concealed (unseen). It is an important concept in Islam, encompassing not only the realm of the divine, including angels, paradise, and hell, but also future events, which only God know.[1] In the Quran it has 6 forms and 3 meanings. But it can also be used in a general sense to refer to something that is known to some but concealed from others.

Meaningแก้ไข

In Arabic, al-Ghaib refers to anything that is hidden in some manner. The term is composed of two words (a definitive article and an adjective), "al" and "Ghaib", literally translating to "the" and "unseen" respectively. It possesses multiple intricate meanings stemming out from the figurative translation "the depth of the well." [2] Given that the bottom of the well is visually concealed as a result of its depth, its contents are generally undeterminable. Al-Ghaib therefore refers to that which is absent, hidden, or concealed.[3] Like majority of adjectives in the Arabic language, al-Ghaib has a triliteral or triconsonantal root. It is composed of three root letters غ ي ب (gaain, yaa, baa), roughly tantamount to g-y-b respectively in the English language.

In Islamแก้ไข

In the Islamic context, al-Ghaib refers to transcendental or divine secrets. It is mentioned in sixty different places in the Qur'an, in six different forms. It has three primary meanings:[4]

  1. Absent – "That is so al-'Azeez will know that I did not betray him in [his] absence and that Allah does not guide the plan of betrayers." [5] (12:52)
  2. The Unknown or Hidden – "[Allah is] Knower of the unseen and the witnessed, the Grand, the Exalted." [6] (13:9)
  3. The Future – "Say, "I hold not for myself [the power of] benefit or harm, except what Allah has willed. And if I knew the unseen, I could have acquired much wealth, and no harm would have touched me. I am not except a warner and a bringer of good tidings to a people who believe." " [7] (7:188) [4]

Typesแก้ไข

There are two types of Ghaib:

1. Al-Ghaib al-Mutlaq (الغيب المطلق) - Absolute Ghaib refers to all knowledge that is unseen or concealed and is only known to Allah. As stated in the Quran: "And with Him are the keys of the Ghayb (all that is hidden), none knows them but He…" [8] (6:59) [9]

Examples of this form of Ghaib are illustrated in the narrations of Muhammad: It is narrated that Abdullah bin `Umar said that the Messenger of Allah said, "The Keys of the Ghaib (unseen knowledge) are five, nobody knows them but Allah. Nobody knows what will happen tomorrow except Allah; nobody knows what is in the womb except Allah; nobody knows when it will rain except Allah; no soul knows at what place he will die except Allah; and nobody knows when the (Final) Hour will begin except Allah.) [10]

2. Al-Ghaib al-Nisbi (الغيب النسبي) - Relative Ghaib is proportionate to an individual and their situation; hence it is apparent to some while hidden from others. An example to illustrate this notion is that of a class in which the students can see the lecturer, hear the content of the lecture, and the conversations that take place in the classroom, while those outside are unaware of the occurrences in the classroom.[9]

Belief in al-Ghaibแก้ไข

It is a fundamental constituent in a Muslim’s belief system to believe in the unseen. As illustrated in the Quran numerous times: "... it [theQuran] is guidance for the righteous… for those who believe in the unseen" (2:3-4). These verses are mentioned at the beginning of the Quran as core characteristics of a believer and consequently all six articles of faith are based on this notion of "the unseen". The six articles of faith in Islam are:

  1. Belief in God
  2. Belief in the Angels
  3. Belief in Divine Books
  4. Belief in the Prophets
  5. Belief in the Day of Judgment
  6. Belief in God's predestination

As stated in a narration ascribed to Muhammad

"Iman is that you believe in Allah and His Angels and His Books and His Messengers and the Hereafter and the good and evil fate [ordained by your God]." [11]

Examples in Islamic textsแก้ไข

In Islamic context, (al-)Ghaib (غيب) is (the) unseen and unknown, in reference to Allah and the forces that shape the world.[12] The Quran states that man (mankind) is unable to see Allah and his attributes. Belief in al-Ghaib is considered an important Muslim characteristic, as it allows for prayer and faith.

…قَالَ أَلَمْ أَقُل لَّكُمْ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ غَيْبَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَأَعْلَمُ مَا تُبْدُونَ وَمَا كُنتُمْ تَكْتُمُونَ


He said, "Did I not tell you that I know the unseen [aspects] of the heavens and the earth? And I know what you reveal and what you have concealed." (2:33)

قُل لَّا أَقُولُ لَكُمْ عِندِي خَزَائِنُ اللَّهِ وَلَا أَعْلَمُ الْغَيْبَ وَلَا أَقُولُ لَكُمْ إِنِّي مَلَكٌ ۖ إِنْ أَتَّبِعُ إِلَّا مَا يُوحَى إِلَيَّ


Say, [O Muhammad], "I do not tell you that I have the depositories [containing the provision] of Allah or that I know the unseen, nor do I tell you that I am an angel. I only follow what is revealed to me. (6:50)

وَعِندَهُ مَفَاتِحُ الْغَيْبِ لَا يَعْلَمُهَا إِلَّا هُوَ ۚ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ ۚ وَمَا تَسْقُطُ مِن وَرَقَةٍ إِلَّا يَعْلَمُهَا وَلَا حَبَّةٍ فِي ظُلُمَاتِ الْأَرْضِ وَلَا رَطْبٍ وَلَا يَابِسٍ إِلَّا فِي كِتَابٍ مُّبِينٍ


And with Him are the keys of the unseen; none knows them except Him. And He knows what is on the land and in the sea. Not a leaf falls but that He knows it. And no grain is there within the darknesses of the earth and no moist or dry [thing] but that it is [written] in the clear book. (6:59)

Referencesแก้ไข

  1. Guessoum, Nidhal (June 2008). "ThE QUR'AN, SCIENCE, AND THE (RELATED)CONTEMPORARY MUSLIM DISCOURSE". Zygon. 43 (2): 413. ISSN 0591-2385. สืบค้นเมื่อ 15 April 2019.
  2. Brill Dictionary, p.680
  3. Hans Wehr Dictionary 4th ed., page 806
  4. 4.0 4.1 Brill Dictionary, p.680-681
  5. Qur’an 12:52
  6. Qur’an 13:9
  7. Qur’an 7:188
  8. Qur’an 6:59
  9. 9.0 9.1 VIDEO: الغيب المطلق والغيب النسبي.
  10. Tafseer ibn Katheer
  11. Muslim, Al-Jami‘ al-sahih, 22, (no. 93).
  12. http://quranicteachings.co.uk/prophet-n-al-ghaib.htm Archived March 5, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.

อาคือเรย์รีแก้ไข

65°41′N 18°06′W / 65.683°N 18.100°W / 65.683; -18.100พิกัดภูมิศาสตร์: 65°41′N 18°06′W / 65.683°N 18.100°W / 65.683; -18.100

อาคือเรย์รี
 
ภาพทางอากาศของตัวเมืองอาคือเรย์รี
 
ตราอาร์ม
 
ที่ตั้งของเทศบาลอาคือเรย์รี
ประเทศไอซ์แลนด์
RegionNortheastern Region
ConstituencyNortheast Constituency
การปกครอง
 • MayorÁsthildur Sturludóttir
พื้นที่
 • ทั้งหมด138 ตร.กม. (53 ตร.ไมล์)
ประชากร
 (2019)[1]
 • ทั้งหมด18,191 คน
 • ความหนาแน่น131.82 คน/ตร.กม. (341.4 คน/ตร.ไมล์)
Postal code(s)600, 601, 602, 603, 611, 630
Municipal number6000
เว็บไซต์akureyri.is

อาคือเรย์รี (ไอซ์แลนด์: Akureyri, แม่แบบ:IPA-is สำเนียงท้องถิ่น แม่แบบ:IPA-is) is a town in northern Iceland. It is Iceland's fourth-largest municipality, after Reykjavík, Hafnarfjörður, and Kópavogur, and the largest town outside Iceland's heavily populated southwest corner.

Nicknamed the "Capital of North Iceland", Akureyri is an important port and fishing centre. The area where Akureyri is located was settled in the 9th century, but did not receive a municipal charter until 1786.[2] Allied units were based in the town during World War II. Further growth occurred after the war as the Icelandic population increasingly moved to urban areas.

Demographicsแก้ไข

On 1 January 2015, Akureyri had a population of 18,191; of whom 9,011 were males and 9,180 were females.[3] About 3% of the population are foreign citizens, from 53 different countries.[4] In 2014, there were 229 births and 118 deaths in Akureyri.[5] Immigration in 2014 was 1,097 individuals, while emigration was 1,122 residents.[6] Population growth in 2014 was therefore 0.5%. The population in 1910 was 2,239, increasing to 7,711 in 1950 and 16,756 in 2005.[7]

Twin towns — sister citiesแก้ไข

ดูเพิ่มเติมที่: List of twin towns and sister cities in Iceland

Akureyri is twinned with:[8]

In 2007, a friendship and fisheries agreement was signed with Grimsby, United Kingdom, which according to Ice News, might lead to a twin cities designation in the future.[9]

Referencesแก้ไข

  1. "Population by municipalities, sex and age 1 January 1998-2019 - Current municipalities". PX-Web. สืบค้นเมื่อ 7 April 2019.
  2. Evans 2008, p. 310
  3. "Hagstofa Íslands - Talnaefni » Mannfjöldi » Sveitarfélög". www.hagstofan.is. คลังข้อมูลเก่า เก็บจาก แหล่งเดิม เมื่อ 16 October 2015. สืบค้นเมื่อ 4 October 2015.
  4. "Hagstofa Íslands - Talnaefni » Mannfjöldi » Ríkisfang, fæðingarland og bakgrunnur íbúa". www.hagstofan.is. คลังข้อมูลเก่า เก็บจาก แหล่งเดิม เมื่อ 16 October 2015. สืบค้นเมื่อ 4 October 2015.
  5. "Hagstofa Íslands - Talnaefni » Mannfjöldi » Fæddir og dánir". www.hagstofan.is. คลังข้อมูลเก่า เก็บจาก แหล่งเดิม เมื่อ 16 October 2015. สืบค้นเมื่อ 4 October 2015.
  6. "Hagstofa Íslands - Talnaefni » Mannfjöldi » Búferlaflutningar". www.hagstofan.is. คลังข้อมูลเก่า เก็บจาก แหล่งเดิม เมื่อ 16 October 2015. สืบค้นเมื่อ 4 October 2015.
  7. "Iceland in figures" (PDF). Statistics Iceland. คลังข้อมูลเก่า เก็บจาก แหล่งเดิม (PDF) เมื่อ 15 October 2009. สืบค้นเมื่อ 14 June 2009.
  8. "Vinabæir". akureyri.is (ภาษาไอซ์แลนด์). Akureyri. สืบค้นเมื่อ 12 February 2020.
  9. "Fish friendship between Grimsby and Akureyri". IceNews Daily News. เก็บ จากแหล่งเดิมเมื่อ 17 April 2008. สืบค้นเมื่อ 14 June 2009.

Referencesแก้ไข

External linksแก้ไข

  Waniosa Amedestir/ทดลองเขียน ข้อมูลการท่องเที่ยวจาก วิกิท่องเที่ยว

การเลือกตั้งรัฐสภาลาว ค.ศ. 2016แก้ไข

ประเทศลาว
 

บทความนี้เป็นส่วนหนึ่งของ:
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ประเทศลาว



Parliamentary elections were held in Laos on 20 March 2016.[1] Voters were presented with a single list from the Lao Front for National Construction, dominated by the Communist Lao People's Revolutionary Party (LRPP). The LPRP won 144 of the 149 seats, with pro-government independents winning the remaining five.

Electoral systemแก้ไข

The 149 members of the National Assembly were elected from 18 multi-member constituencies with between three and fourteen seats using the first-past-the-post system.[2] Candidates had to gain the support of a local authority or a mass organisation to run for office, and election committees approve candidacies.[2] Due to a rise in the country's population, the number of seats was increased from 132 in the 2011 elections.[3]

Campaignแก้ไข

A total of 149 seats were contested by 211 candidates, including 50 women and 48 incumbent MPs.[1] Much of the election campaign was focused on economic development.[3]

Resultsแก้ไข

Of the 149 elected members, 73% were first-time MPs.[3]

Alliance Party Votes % Seats +/–
Lao Front for National Construction Lao People's Revolutionary Party 100 144 +16
Independents 5 +1
Invalid/blank votes
Total 3,657,026 100 149 +17
Registered voters/turnout 3,733,932 97.94
Source: IPU

Aftermathแก้ไข

Following the elections, the National Assembly convened on 20 April to elect Bounnhang Vorachith as president (replacing Choummaly Sayasone) and Thongloun Sisoulith as Prime Minister, replacing Thongsing Thammavong.[3]

Referencesแก้ไข

แม่แบบ:Laotian elections

ไชนาแมน (คำศัพท์)แก้ไข

บทความนี้เกี่ยวกับChinaman (disambiguation)|Chinaman สำหรับความหมายอื่น ดูที่ Waniosa Amedestir/ทดลองเขียน (แก้ความกำกวม)

Chinaman (/ˈnə.mən/) is an ethnic slur referring to a Chinese man or person, a Mainland Chinese national or, in some cases, a person native to geographical East Asia or of perceived East Asian race. While the term has no negative connotations in older dictionaries[1][2] and the usage of such compound terms as Englishman, Frenchman and Irishman[3] are sometimes cited as unobjectionable parallels,[4] the term is noted as offensive by modern dictionaries. Its derogatory connotations evolved from its use in pejorative contexts regarding Chinese people and other Asians[5] as well as its grammatical incorrectness which resembles stereotypical characterizations of Chinese accents in English-speaking associated with discrimination.[6][7][8] While usage of the term Chinaman is nowadays strongly discouraged by Asian American organizations,[9][10][11][12] it has also been used as a self-referential archetype by authors and artists of Asian descent.[13] It may have come from literal translation into English of the Chinese term for "Chinese man/person", 中國人 (Zhōngguó rén) = "China man/person".

See alsoแก้ไข

Referencesแก้ไข

  1. "Chinaman". Webster Dictionary, 1913. คลังข้อมูลเก่า เก็บจาก แหล่งเดิม เมื่อ 12 December 2007. สืบค้นเมื่อ 20 March 2007.
  2. Fowler's Dictionary of English Usage, 1956
  3. Englishman has two plurals: (the) English, when speaking of the nation and Englishmen when speaking of individuals. The same remark applies to: Dutchman, Frenchman, Scotsman, Welshman and Cornishman. Chinese is now rarely used as a singular, the compound Chinaman taking its place. A manual of English pronunciation and grammar for the use of Dutch students By J. H. A. Günther, p144
  4. Oxford American Dictionary
  5. Yam, Kimberly (3 May 2018). "Yes, 'Chinaperson' Is A Racist Term". Huffington Post (ภาษาอังกฤษ). สืบค้นเมื่อ 18 February 2019.
  6. Arslan, L. M., & Hansen, J. H. (1996). Language accent classification in American English. Speech Communication, 18(4), 353-367.
  7. Cargile, A. C. (1997). Attitudes toward Chinese-accented speech: An investigation in two contexts. Journal of language and social psychology, 16(4), 434-443.
  8. Kim, S. Y., Wang, Y., Deng, S., Alvarez, R., & Li, J. (2011). Accent, perpetual foreigner stereotype, and perceived discrimination as indirect links between English proficiency and depressive symptoms in Chinese American adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 47(1), 289.
  9. "'Seinfeld' Edits Out Anti-Asian Joke". AsianWeek. 9 July 1998. คลังข้อมูลเก่า เก็บจาก แหล่งเดิม เมื่อ 10 October 2007. สืบค้นเมื่อ 21 March 2007.
  10. "World News Briefs; Alberta's New Name For Peak in Rockies". The New York Times. 9 July 1998. สืบค้นเมื่อ 20 March 2007.
  11. Williams, Stephanie (June 2001). "Chicago Sun Times — discrimination in reporting". The Chicago Reporter. คลังข้อมูลเก่า เก็บจาก แหล่งเดิม เมื่อ 6 February 2007. สืบค้นเมื่อ 20 March 2007.
  12. Hua, Vanessa (14 March 2007). "Ted Turner apologizes for remarks on Chinese". San Francisco Chronicle. สืบค้นเมื่อ 20 March 2007.
  13. "Frank Chin". Houghton Mifflin College Division. สืบค้นเมื่อ 3 April 2007.

Further readingแก้ไข

  • "Chinaman". Dictionary.com. สืบค้นเมื่อ 20 March 2007.
  • "Chinaman". The Free Dictionary. สืบค้นเมื่อ 20 March 2007.
  • "Chinaman". Merriam-Webster. สืบค้นเมื่อ 20 March 2007.
  • Chinaman. Encarta. คลังข้อมูลเก่า เก็บจาก แหล่งเดิม เมื่อ 11 December 2007. สืบค้นเมื่อ 20 March 2007.
  • "Chinaman". Compact Oxford English Dictionary. คลังข้อมูลเก่า เก็บจาก แหล่งเดิม เมื่อ 14 May 2007. สืบค้นเมื่อ 20 March 2007.
  • "Chinaman". RhymeZone. สืบค้นเมื่อ 20 March 2007.
  • "Chinaman". AllWords.com. สืบค้นเมื่อ 20 March 2007.
  • "Chinaman". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000. คลังข้อมูลเก่า เก็บจาก แหล่งเดิม เมื่อ 5 April 2005. สืบค้นเมื่อ 20 March 2007.
  • "Bob Beckel Uses Racial Slur On Live Television". The Huffington Post. สืบค้นเมื่อ 10 July 2015.

External linksแก้ไข

แม่แบบ:Ethnic slurs

คำเตือน: หลักเรียงลำดับปริยาย "Chinaman (Term)" ได้ลบล้างหลักเรียงลำดับปริยาย "Meaole, Tupua Tamasese" ที่มีอยู่ก่อนหน้า

ชาวบรูไนเชื้อสายมลายูแก้ไข

ชาวบรูไนเชื้อสายมลายู
 
เจ้าสาวชาวบรูไนเชื้อสายมลายูในพิธีก่อนแต่งงาน มาลัมเบอเบอดัก ประเพณีนี้เป็นเอกลักษณ์ในอำเภอบรูไน-มัวรา
ประชากรทั้งหมด
ป. 330,000 คน[1] (1999 estimate)
ภูมิภาคที่มีประชากรอย่างมีนัยสำคัญ
  บรูไน

  มาเลเซีย
Sarawak (Lawas and Limbang)
Sabah (Sipitang, Beaufort, Kuala Penyu, Papar, Kota Kinabalu)
Labuan
ภาษา
Brunei Malay, Malaysian and English
ศาสนา
Predominantly Shafi'i Sunni Muslim
กลุ่มชาติพันธุ์ที่เกี่ยวข้อง
Kedayan, Lun Bawang/Lundayeh, other Malays

ชาวบรูไนเชื้อสายมลายู (มลายู: Orang Melayu Brunei, اورڠ ملايو بروني‎) เป็นกลุ่มชาติพันธุ์มลายูท้องถิ่นที่อาศัยอยู่ในประเทศบรูไน, the federal territory of Labuan, the southwestern coast of Sabah and the northern parts of Sarawak.[2][3] The Bruneian Malays are a subgroup of the larger ethnic Malay population found in the other parts of the Malay World, namely Peninsular Malaysia and the central and southern areas of Sarawak including neighbouring lands such as Singapore, Indonesia and Southern Thailand, having visible differences especially in language and culture, even though they are ethnically related to each other and follow the teachings of Islam. All Bruneian Malays who are born or domiciled in East Malaysia even for generations before or after the independence of the states of Sabah and Sarawak from the British Empire through the formation of Malaysia in 1963 are also considered Malaysian Malays in the national census and were in the same status like the Malaysian Malays domiciled in Peninsular Malaysian states and the central and southern parts of Sarawak. They are also defined as a part of the Bumiputera racial classification together as a subgroup within the Malaysian Malay ethnic population along with the Kadazan-Dusuns, Ibans, Malaccan Portuguese and the Malaysian Siamese.

ศัพทมูลวิทยาแก้ไข

 
ฝั่งตะวันตกเฉียงเหนือของเกาะบอร์เนียว เป็นพื้นที่ที่มีชาวบรูไนเชื้อสายมลายูในประเทศบรูไนกับมาเลเซียตะวันออกจำนวนมาก

As per an official statistics, the "Bruneian Malays" term only became official after the 1921 Brunei Ethnic Categories Census, which is different from the 1906 and 1911 census which only mentioned "Barunays" (Brunei's or Bruneian). It is possibly indicated a shift on the self-perception by the Bruneians about their Malay identity.[4]

The earliest recorded documentation by the West about Brunei is by an Italian known as Ludovico di Varthema, who also said the "Bruneian people have fairer skin tone than the peoples he met in Maluku Islands". On his documentation back to 1550[5]

Historyแก้ไข

Originแก้ไข

It is widely believed that the Brunei Kingdom was founded in 14th century by the first Sultan, Alak Batatar.[4] However, from the Chinese records, an older Brunei was in existence as far back as 800 years before the founding of Brunei by Sultan Muhammad Shah, the first Sultan of Brunei.[6] Even though some sources stated that the Malays of Brunei came from Yunnan and the Formosa Island (now Taiwan) through to the Philippines and settled on the coastal Borneo before expanding into Sumatra and Indochina countries like Malay Peninsula, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam as a result of their trading and seafaring way of life, researchers still unable to traced the origin of the old Brunei.[6]

Culturesแก้ไข

 
Ambuyat, a quintessentially Bruneian Malay cuisine, it is considered as the national dish of the country.

Cuisineแก้ไข

ดูบทความหลักที่: Bruneian cuisine และ Malaysian cuisine

As the official Brunei national dish, the Ambuyat is the main dish of the Bruneian Malays together with a number of types of snack such as lamban, punjung and many more.[7][8]

Musicแก้ไข

ดูบทความหลักที่: Music of Brunei และ Music of Malaysia

The main song and dance performed by this ethnic both in Brunei and Malaysia is the Adai-adai,[9][10] which was traditionally sung by the Bruneian fishermens.[11][12]

See alsoแก้ไข

Referencesแก้ไข

  1. Adrian Clynes. "Occasional Papers in Language Studies, Department of English Language and Applied Linguistics, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Volume 7 (2001), pp. 11-43. (Brunei Malay: An Overview1)" (PDF). Universiti Brunei Darussalam. คลังข้อมูลเก่า เก็บจาก แหล่งเดิม (PDF) เมื่อ 16 October 2013. สืบค้นเมื่อ 21 August 2013.
  2. "The Malay of Malaysia". Bethany World Prayer Center. 1997. คลังข้อมูลเก่า เก็บจาก แหล่งเดิม เมื่อ 10 October 2012. สืบค้นเมื่อ 23 August 2013.
  3. "The Diaspora Malay". Bethany World Prayer Center. 1997. คลังข้อมูลเก่า เก็บจาก แหล่งเดิม เมื่อ 18 July 2012. สืบค้นเมื่อ 23 August 2013.
  4. 4.0 4.1 B. A. Hussainmiya (2010). "The Malay Identity in Brunei Darussalam and Sri Lanka" (PDF). Universiti Brunei Darussalam. pp. 67, 68 and 69/3, 4 and 5. คลังข้อมูลเก่า เก็บจาก แหล่งเดิม (PDF) เมื่อ 29 October 2014. สืบค้นเมื่อ 29 October 2014.
  5. Bilcher Bala (2005). Thalassocracy: a history of the medieval Sultanate of Brunei Darussalam. School of Social Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sabah. ISBN 978-983-2643-74-6.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Rozan Yunos (25 October 2010). "The Malay origin: Tracing back the lineage of the old Brunei". The Brunei Times. คลังข้อมูลเก่า เก็บจาก แหล่งเดิม เมื่อ 29 October 2014. สืบค้นเมื่อ 29 October 2014.
  7. Jessica Tiah (8 January 2011). "Ambuyat - Our iconic heritage". The Brunei Times. คลังข้อมูลเก่า เก็บจาก แหล่งเดิม เมื่อ 4 April 2014. สืบค้นเมื่อ 5 April 2014.
  8. Zaimah Dinin (4 April 2014). "Ambuyat, kelupis pelik tapi sedap" (ภาษามาเลย์). Sinar Harian. เก็บ จากแหล่งเดิมเมื่อ 29 October 2014. สืบค้นเมื่อ 29 October 2014.
  9. Culture Grams. CultureGrams. 2010.
  10. "Papar Culture (Brunei)" (ภาษามาเลย์). Papar District Office. คลังข้อมูลเก่า เก็บจาก แหล่งเดิม เมื่อ 29 October 2014. สืบค้นเมื่อ 29 October 2014.
  11. Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2007). World and Its Peoples: Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Brunei. Marshall Cavendish. pp. 1202–. ISBN 978-0-7614-7642-9.
  12. Lonely Planet (2010). The Travel Book: A Journey Through Every Country in the World. Lonely Planet. pp. 63–. ISBN 978-1-74179-211-9.

Notesแก้ไข


Booksแก้ไข

  1. มลายู: Laporan banchi pendudok Brunei, 1971 (มลายู: Bahagian Ekonomi dan Perangkaan, Jabatan Setia Usaha Kerajaan), 1971.
  2. Mohd. Nor bin Long; มลายู: Perkembangan pelajaran di Sabah (มลายู: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia), 1978.
  3. Sabihah Osman, Muhamad Hadi Abdullah, Sabullah Hj. Hakip; มลายู: Sejarah Brunei menjelang kemerdekaan (มลายู: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia), 1955.

แม่แบบ:Brunei topics แม่แบบ:Ethnic groups in Brunei แม่แบบ:Ethnic groups in Malaysia

ผู้อำนวยการใหญ่องค์การการค้าโลกแก้ไข

ผู้อำนวยการใหญ่องค์การการค้าโลก
ผู้ดำรงตำแหน่งคนปัจจุบัน
อึนโกซี โอโกนโจ-อีเวอาลา (เลือกตั้ง)

ตั้งแต่ 1 มีนาคม ค.ศ. 2021
องค์การการค้าโลก
การเรียกขานมาดาม ผู้อำนวยการใหญ่
(ไม่ทางการ)
เฮอร์เอ็กซ์เลนซี
(การทูต)
รายงานตัวต่อสภาสามัญ
ที่ว่าการCentre William Rappard, เจนีวา, ประเทศสวิสเซอร์แลนด์
ผู้แต่งตั้งสภาสามัญ
วาระ4 ปี เลือกใหม่ได้
ตราสารจัดตั้งWTO Organization Chart
สถาปนา1 มกราคม ค.ศ. 1995
คนแรกปีเตอร์ ซูเธอร์แลนด์
รองรองผู้อำนวยการใหญ่
เว็บไซต์www.wto.org

ผู้อำนวยการใหญ่องค์การการค้าโลก (อังกฤษ: director-general of the World Trade Organization) เป็นตำแหน่งขององค์การการค้าโลกที่มีส่วนเกี่ยวข้องกับการควบคุมและกำกับการบริหารงานขององค์กร เพราะว่า the World Trade Organization's decisions are made by member states, through either a Ministerial Conference or through the General Council, the director-general has little power over matters of policy – the role is primarily advisory and managerial in nature. The director-general supervises the WTO secretariat of about 700 staff and is appointed by WTO members for a term of four years.[1]

The post of Director-General has been vacant since 31 August 2020,[2] after the resignation of Roberto Azevêdo of Brazil who had held the post since 1 September 2013.[3] On February 5, 2021, Dr. Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala of Nigeria secured the support of the United States for Director-General of the WTO.[4] Okonjo-Iweala assumed office on 1 March 2021, and became both the first woman and the first African to hold this position.

Before the formation of the WTO, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) had a series of directors-general. Peter Sutherland was the last director-general of GATT and the first of the WTO.

รายชื่อแก้ไข

นี่คือรายชื่ออดีตผู้ดำรงตำแหน่งผู้อำนวยการใหญ่ ตำแหน่งนี้ก่อตั้งใน ค.ศ. 1995 ถึงแม้ว่า the earlier office of Executive Secretary is often seen as a direct equivalent.[5]

ลำดับ ภาพ ผู้อำนวยการใหญ่ ระยะเวลา บ้านเกิด
เริ่ม สิ้นสุด
1 ปีเตอร์ ซูเธอร์แลนด์
(ค.ศ. 1946–2018)
1 กรกฎาคม ค.ศ. 1993 30 เมษายน ค.ศ. 1995   ไอร์แลนด์
2 เรนาโต รุจจีโร
(ค.ศ. 1930–2013)
1 พฤษภาคม ค.ศ. 1995 31 สิงหาคม ค.ศ. 1999   อิตาลี
3 Mike Moore
(1949–2020)
1 September 1999 31 August 2002   New Zealand
4 ศุภชัย พานิชภักดิ์
(เกิด พ.ศ. 2489)
1 กันยายน ค.ศ. 2002 31 สิงหาคม ค.ศ. 2005   ไทย
5 Pascal Lamy
(born 1947)
1 September 2005 31 August 2009   France
1 September 2009 31 August 2013
6 Roberto Azevêdo
(born 1957)
1 September 2013 31 August 2017   Brazil
1 September 2017 31 August 2020[6]
7 อึนโกซี โอโกนโจ-อีเวอาลา[7]
(เกิด ค.ศ. 1954)
1 March 2021
Incumbent
  Nigeria

Referencesแก้ไข

  1. See document WT/L/509, accessible from
  2. "WTO Director-General". World Trade Organization. 8 October 2020. สืบค้นเมื่อ 28 October 2020.
  3. McClanahan, Paige (8 May 2013). "Roberto Azevêdo to be named new World Trade Organisation chief". Guardian. สืบค้นเมื่อ 8 May 2013.
  4. "After being blocked by Trump, first African and woman takes WTO helm". POLITICO (ภาษาอังกฤษ). สืบค้นเมื่อ 14 February 2021.
  5. "Previous GATT and WTO Directors-General". WTO. สืบค้นเมื่อ 8 May 2013.
  6. Emma Farge, Philip Blenkinsop (31 August 2020). "Damaged WTO now leaderless as chief Azevedo steps down". Reuters. สืบค้นเมื่อ 12 October 2020.
  7. "After being blocked by Trump, first African and woman takes WTO helm". POLITICO (ภาษาอังกฤษ). สืบค้นเมื่อ 14 February 2021.

External linksแก้ไข

  • ไม่พบ URL โปรดระบุ URL ที่นี่หรือเพิ่ม URL ในวิกิสนเทศ

เอมเพโดคลีส (ทำให้ดี)แก้ไข

สำหรับความหมายอื่น ดูที่ Waniosa Amedestir/ทดลองเขียน (แก้ความกำกวม)
Empedocles
 
Empedocles, 17th-century engraving
เกิดป. 494 BC[1]
Akragas, Magna Graecia
เสียชีวิตประมาณ 434 BC[1] (aged around 60)
unknown[c]
ยุคPre-Socratic philosophy
แนวทางWestern philosophy
สำนักPluralist school
ความสนใจหลัก
Cosmogenesis, ontology, epistemology
แนวคิดเด่น
All things[3] are made up of four elements: fire, air, earth and water
Change and motion[4] are due to the corporeal substances[5] Love[6] (Aphrodite)[6] and Strife[6]
The sphere of Empedocles
Theories about respiration (the clepsydra experiment)
Emission theory of vision


Empedocles (/ɛmˈpɛdəklz/; กรีก: Ἐμπεδοκλῆς แม่แบบ:IPA-grc, Empedoklēs; ประมาณ 494 –  434 BC, fl. 444–443 BC)[7] was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a native citizen of Akragas,[8][9] a Greek city in Sicily. Empedocles' philosophy is best known for originating the cosmogonic theory of the four classical elements. He also proposed forces he called Love and Strife which would mix and separate the elements, respectively.

Influenced by Pythagoras (died c. 495 BC) and the Pythagoreans, Empedocles challenged the practice of animal sacrifice and killing animals for food. He developed a distinctive doctrine of reincarnation. He is generally considered the last Greek philosopher to have recorded his ideas in verse. Some of his work survives, more than is the case for any other pre-Socratic philosopher. Empedocles' death was mythologized by ancient writers, and has been the subject of a number of literary treatments.

Lifeแก้ไข

 
The temple of Hera at Akragas, built when Empedocles was a young man, ป. 470 BC.

Empedocles (Empedokles) was a native citizen of Akragas in Sicily.[8][9] He came from a rich and noble family.[8][10][11] Very little is known about his life. His grandfather, also called Empedokles, had won a victory in the horse-race at Olympia in [the 71st Olympiad] OL. LXXI (496–95 BC).[8][9][10] His father's name, according to the best accounts, was Meton.[8][9][10]

All that can be said to be known about the dates of Empedocles is, that his grandfather was still alive in 496 BC; that he himself was active at Akragas after 472 BC, the date of Theron’s death; and that he died later than 444 BC.[7]

Empedocles "broke up the assembly of the Thousand. perhaps some oligarchical association or club."[12] He is said to have been magnanimous in his support of the poor;[13] severe in persecuting the overbearing conduct of the oligarchs;[14] and he even declined the sovereignty of the city when it was offered to him.[15]

According to John Burnet: "there is another side to his public character ... He claimed to be a god, and to receive the homage of his fellow-citizens in that capacity. The truth is, Empedokles was not a mere statesman; he had a good deal of the '