Like a Virgin คือ เพล' ที่ขับร้องโดย Madonna เพลงนี้อยู่ในอัลบัมที่ 2 ซึ่งชื่ออัลบัมเป็นชื่อเดียวกับเพลงคือ Like a Virgin
|"Like a Virgin"|
|Sepia photo of a young brunette woman wearing white heart-shaped earrings and hair accessory. Her left hand is either pulling or putting on a bead necklace. Her wrists have countless bead bracelets. She is wearing white undergarments.|
Cover art for 7" U.S. vinyl single
|จากอัลบั้มLike a Virgin|
|วางจำหน่าย||November 6, 1984|
|บันทึกเสียง||April 1984; Power Station studios, New York|
"Like a Virgin" is a song by American singer Madonna from her second album of the same name. It was released on November 6, 1984 by Sire Records, as the first single from the album. The song appears on the greatest hits compilation albums The Immaculate Collection (1990) and Celebration (2009). It was written by Billy Steinberg and Tom Kelly and produced by Nile Rodgers; Steinberg said that the song was inspired by his personal experiences of romance. It was chosen for Madonna by Michael Ostin of Warner Bros. Records after listening to a demo sung by Kelly. However, Rodgers initially felt that the song did not have a good enough hook and was not suitable for Madonna, but subsequently changed his opinion after the hook was stuck in his mind.
Musically "Like a Virgin" is a dance-oriented song, composed of two hooks. Madonna's voice is heard in a high register while a continuous arrangement of drums are heard along the bassline. The lyrics of the song are ambiguous and consist of hidden innuendo. In sexual terms, the lyrics can be interpreted in different ways for different people. "Like a Virgin" received positive reviews from contemporary as well as old critics, who frequently called it as one of the defining songs for Madonna. It became her first number-one single on the Billboard Hot 100, while reaching the top of the charts in Australia, Canada, and Japan and the top-ten of the other countries.
The music video portrayed Madonna sailing down the riverways of Venice in a gondola, as well as roaming around a palace wearing a white wedding dress. With the video, scholars noted Madonna's portrayal of a sexually independent woman, the symbolism of the appearance of a man with lion's mask to that of Saint Mark, and compared the eroticism of the video to the vitality of the city of Venice. Madonna has performed the song in six of her concert tours, most recent being the 2012 MDNA Tour. The majority of the time, her performances of "Like a Virgin" has been associated with strong reaction and uproar from the media.
"Like a Virgin" has been covered by a number of artists and has appeared in feature films such as Reservoir Dogs, Moulin Rouge! and Bridget Jones: The Edge of Reason. The song is noted for its profound effect on society. Family groups sought to ban it as they believed the song promoted sex without marriage. On the other hand, Madonna's public persona of an indomitable, sexually unashamed, supremely confident woman was widely accepted by the younger generation who emulated her style and fashion. Scholars have credited "Like a Virgin" as the song which cemented her position as a pop culture icon.
"Like a Virgin" was written by Billy Steinberg and Tom Kelly. In an interview with the Los Angeles Times, Steinberg explained that the song was not only not written for Madonna, it was not even written for a female singer but was inspired by his personal experiences.
I wasn't just trying to get that racy word virgin in a lyric. I was saying ... that I may not really be a virgin — I've been battered romantically and emotionally like many people — but I'm starting a new relationship and it just feels so good, it's healing all the wounds and making me feel like I've never done this before, because it's so much deeper and more profound than anything I've ever felt.
Kelly recorded the demo, and invited Michael Ostin of Warner Bros. Records' A&R department to his house to listen to it. Steinberg and Kelly played four or five tunes for Ostin, and further discussed "Like a Virgin" – they were not sure for which artist the song would be suitable. Due to meet with Madonna the next day to discuss her sophomore album, Ostin intended on playing the demo to her, believing the lyrics and the groove of the song were perfect for Madonna. "When I played it for Madonna she went crazy, and knew instantly it was a song for her and that she could make a great record out of it," Ostin recalled. In 2009, Rolling Stone interviewer Austin Scaggs asked Madonna what her first impressions were after listening to the demos of "Like a Virgin" and "Material Girl". Madonna replied:
I liked them both because they were ironic and provocative at the same time but also unlike me. I am not a materialistic person, and I certainly wasn't a virgin, and, by the way, how can you be like a virgin? I liked the play on words; I thought they were clever. They're so geeky, they're cool. I never realised they would become my signature songs, especially the second one.
Recording and productionแก้ไข
In mid-1984, Madonna met producer Nile Rodgers at the Power Station studios (now Avatar Studios) in New York. Rodgers initially did not want Madonna to record "Like a Virgin", as he felt that the lyric 'like a virgin' was not a terrific hook; according to him it was not an all-time catch phrase. Madonna dismissed the song after hearing the demo, which she thought sounded "really stupid and retarded". Later, Madonna had second thoughts: "It's weird because I couldn't get it out of my head after I played it, even though I didn't really like it. It sounded really bubble-gummy to me, but it grew on me. I really started to like it. [...] But, my first reaction to it was, 'This is really queer.'"
Rodgers credits Madonna with recognizing the song's potential. He later said: "I handed my apology to Madonna and said, 'you know... if it's so catchy that it stayed in my head for four days, it must be something. So let's do it.'" Hence the song was finally recorded. Steinberg reflected on the recording process and commented that:
When Madonna recorded it, even as our demo faded out, on the fade you could hear Tom saying, "When your heart beats, and you hold me, and you love me..." That was the last thing you heard as our demo faded. Madonna must have listened to it very, very carefully because her record ends with the exact same little ad-libs that our demo did. That rarely happens that someone studies your demo so carefully that they use all that stuff. We were sort of flattered how carefully she followed our demo on that.
Jason Corsaro, the record's audio engineer, persuaded Rodgers to use digital recording, a new technique at the time which Corsaro believed was going to be the future of recording because test pressings always sounded consistent. To ensure this, Corsaro used a Sony 3324 24-track digital tape recorder and a Sony F1 two-track for the 12-bit mix. Madonna recorded the lead parts in a small, wooden, high-ceilinged piano room at the back of Studio C, also known as Power Station's "R&B room".
Corsaro then placed gobos around her while using the top capsule of a stereo AKG C24 tube microphone, with a Schoeps microphone preamplifier and a Pultec equalizer. Once the track met with everybody's approval, Robert Sabino added the keyboard parts, playing mostly a Sequential Circuits Prophet-5, as well as some Rhodes piano and acoustic piano, while Rodgers also played a Synclavier. Madonna, although not required, was present every minute of the recording sessions and the mixing process, Corsaro commented: "Nile was there most of the time, but she was there all of the time. She never left".
A 20 second sample of the song. Madonna sings the chorus which is supported by a continuous arrangement of drums and synth along the bassline.
|หากมีปัญหาในการเล่นไฟล์นี้ ดูที่ วิธีใช้สื่อ|
Composed as a dance-oriented song, the intro of "Like a Virgin" consists of two hooks. According to the sheet music published at Musicnotes.com by Alfred Publishing, the song is set in common time, with a moderately dance-groove tempo of 118 beats per minute. It is composed in the key of F major with Madonna's voice ranging from the tonal nodes of high-tone G3 to low-tone C5. According to Rikky Rooksby, the bassline on the intro is a re-working of the three-note bass motif present in the Four Tops' 1965 song "I Can't Help Myself (Sugar Pie Honey Bunch)", where Chuck Berry provided the chord arrangement. The bassline also has some similarity with Michael Jackson's "Billie Jean" especially during the second verse. Madonna sings the song in her high register while drum arrangement by Tony Thompson is heard alongside the bassline, which is also supported by a synthesizer arrangement, giving it a circular progression through all the seven diatonic chords of I–IV–VIIo–III–VI–II–V–I.
Regarding the lyrics, Madonna had commented: "I like innuendo, I like irony, I like the way things can be taken on different levels." This statement highlighted the ambiguity of the lyrics of the song, which is hung on the word 'like'. Rooksby interpreted the meaning of the song in different ways to different people. He said that for women who were really virgins, the song encouraged them to hold their compose before they engaged in their very first sexual act. For sexually experienced girls, the song meant that they would be able to re-live the feelings of their first sexual encounter all over again. For the boys, the song presented a narcissistic image of them making the girl forget her past encounters and enjoy the sexual act as if for the first time.
"Like a Virgin" is one of Madonna's most famous singles, and was met with predominantly positive critical reception. Stephen Thomas Erlewine from Allmusic said that "Like a Virgin" was a definitive statement. He added that the song, and "Material Girl" from the same album, made Madonna an icon. He added that both overshadowed the rest of the record, "because they are a perfect match of theme and sound." Debbie Miller from Rolling Stone commented that Madonna's voice "doesn't have the power or range of, say, Cyndi Lauper, but she knows what works on the dance floor." Dave Karger from Entertainment Weekly, while reviewing the album in 1995, felt that the song came off a bit repetitious and immature when compared to the present context. Jim Farber from Entertainment Weekly felt that the song raised the "madonna-whore" ante. Sal Cinquemani from Slant Magazine called the song a classic. Alfred Soto from Stylus Magazine felt that the song was chic in its style. Katie Henderson from The Guardian commented that the song was saucy in nature. Michael Paoletta from Billboard commented that the song sustained a "fevered dance-rock momentum."
In 2000, "Like a Virgin", was honored by Rolling Stone and MTV, as the fourth song on their list of the "100 Greatest Pop Songs". It was voted ten on VH1's 100 Best Songs of the Past 25 Years. The song was listed at ninety-five on Billboard Hot 100 All-Time Top Songs. In 2003, Madonna fans were asked to vote for their 'Top 20 Madonna singles of all-time', by Q magazine. "Like a Virgin" was allocated the fifth spot on the list.
"Like a Virgin" became Madonna's first of 12 number-one hits on the Billboard Hot 100, where it debuted at number 48 on the issue dated November 17, 1984. The song reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100 chart the week of December 22, 1984 and remained there for six weeks. "Like a Virgin" was certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) on January 10, 1985, for shipping a million copies across United States—the requirement for a gold single prior to 1989. The song also reached number-one on the Hot Dance Music/Club Play chart, and was her first top-ten entry on the Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart at position nine. It placed at two on the year-end chart for 1985, with Madonna becoming the top pop artist for the year. In Canada, the song debuted on the RPM Singles Chart at 71 on the RPM issue dated November 24, 1984, and reached the top of the chart on January 19, 1985. It was present on the chart for a total of 23 weeks and ranked thirty-five on the RPM Year-end chart for 1985.
The song debuted on the UK Singles Chart on November 17, 1984 at number 51, and peaked at number three on January 12, 1985; it spent a total of 18 weeks in the chart, and was certified gold by the British Phonographic Industry (BPI) for shipment of 500,000 copies across United Kingdom. According to The Official Charts Company, the song has sold 780,000 copies there. Across Europe, the song peaked within the top-ten of the charts of Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Norway and Switzerland. "Like a Virgin" became Madonna's first number-one song on the Australian Kent Music Report chart and on the Japanese International Singles Chart. It peaked at number-two on the New Zealand Singles Chart, number 15 on the Swedish charts and peaked the Eurochart Hot 100 Singles.
The music video, directed by Mary Lambert, who worked with Madonna in her video for "Borderline", was shot in Venice, Italy and partly in New York City in July 1984. Madonna was portrayed as a knowing virgin, a figment of the pornographic mind, as she walked through marble rooms, wearing a wedding gown. It alternated with scenes of a provocative-looking Madonna on board a gondola. She commented, "[Mary] wanted me to be the modern-day, worldly-wise girl that I am. But then we wanted to go back in time and use myself as an actual virgin." The video starts with Madonna boarding on a boat from the Brooklyn Bridge and travels to Venice. As she steps down into the city, she moves like a stripper and undulated sinuously. She wears a black dress and blue pants with a number of Christian symbol embedded jewelry around her neck. She sings the song at full volume as she watches a lion walking between the columns of the Piazza San Marco of Venice and along the statute of Saint Mark. A number of game-playing involving carnival masks, men, lions, werelions are portrayed with allusions to eighteenth-century practices and Saint Mark. Sheila Whiteley, author of Women and popular music: sexuality, identity, and subjectivity, felt that Madonna's image signified a denial of sexual knowledge, but also portrayed her in simulated writhing on a gondola, thus underpinning the simulation of deceit. The intrusion of a male lion, confirmed the underlying bestial discourse of both mythological fairy tale and pornographic sex. Whiteley observed that in the video, Madonna's lover wears the lion's mask and while cavorting with him, Madonna sheds the veneer of innocence and shows her propensity for wild animal passions. Having instilled desire, metaphorically she turns her lover into a Beast. Madonna commented about shooting with the lion:
"The lion didn't do anything he was supposed to do, and I ended up leaning against this pillar with his head in my crotch... I thought he was going to take a bite out of me so I lifted the veil I was wearing and had a stare-down with him and he opened his mouth and let out this huge roar. I got so frightened my heart fell in my shoe. When he finally walked away, the director yelled 'Cut' and I had to take a long breather. But I could really relate to the lion. I feel like in a past life I was a lion or a cat or something."
—Director Mary Lambert on the filming of the video.
With the video, scholars noted the expression of Venetian vitality in it. Margaret Plant (2002) commented: "With the lion of Saint Mark and the virginal city to the forefront, old sacrosanct Venice was propelled into a pop world of high-energy gyration, and endless circulation." She also noted that Saint Mark was a symbol of a time when sexual crime was punished severely in Venice and acts of rape, homosexuality and fornication incurred the loss of a nose, a hand or sometimes life itself. Madonna appeared to challenge such brutality and stretch the boundaries of tolerance in the video. As the lion-man carried Madonna to the Venetian palace, it symbolized an instance of the Saint taking the simulated Virgin, where Madonna became a symbol for La Serenissima, the Republic itself. Plant also noted that Madonna, in the video, restored the energy and eroticism of Venice, which had its name taken from Venus in familiar elision. As she exchanged her blue top for a black one during the video, Madonna demonstrated her mastery and bravery of the city, which had a reputation of turning out its visitors as victims. Carol Clerk (2002) commented that with the video, "Madonna's days as a cheap and cheerful video star were over. She was moving into serious spectacle."
In 1985, a live music video of "Like a Virgin" from The Virgin Tour filmed in Detroit, was used to promote Live – The Virgin Tour video release. This version was nominated for Best Choreography at the 1986 MTV Video Music Awards. The live performance of "Like a Virgin" from the Blond Ambition World Tour in Paris, France was released as a music video on May 9, 1991 to promote the documentary film Truth or Dare. This version was nominated for two awards at the 1991 MTV Video Music Awards in the categories of Best Female Video and Best Choreography. This video was ranked at position sixty-one on VH1's 100 Greatest Videos.
Madonna performed "Like a Virgin" at the first MTV Video Music Awards in 1984, where she appeared on stage atop a giant wedding cake dressed in a wedding dress, adorned with the infamous "Boy Toy" belt buckle, and veil. The climax of her risqué performance found her "humping" and rolling around on the stage. To this day, the performance is noted as one of the most iconic and biggest performances in MTV's history. The song has also been included in six of Madonna's eight concert tours. For The Virgin Tour in 1985, Madonna again donned wedding attire and performed a straight version of the song featuring a quotation from Michael Jackson's similar-sounding Motown-style single, "Billie Jean". Balloons floated out towards the audience as she rolled around the stage, carrying a wedding bouquet in her hand. The performance was included in the VHS release Live – The Virgin Tour recorded in Detroit, Michigan. In the 1987 Who's That Girl World Tour, the song was given a lighthearted comedic theme and included quotations from The Four Tops' "I Can't Help Myself (Sugar Pie Honey Bunch)". Madonna took off her outfit piece by piece, until she was standing in a black corset, and ended the performance while flirting with a young male dancer who played her bridegroom. Two different performances of the song on this tour can be found on the videos: Who's That Girl – Live in Japan, filmed in Tokyo, Japan, on June 22, 1987, and Ciao, Italia! – Live from Italy, filmed in Turin, Italy, on September 4, 1987.
For the 1990 Blond Ambition World Tour, the song was re-invented with a middle-eastern arrangement and risqué choreography which found Madonna wearing a gold corset, while simulating masturbation on a red silk bed, accompanied by two male dancers who wore the infamous cone bras designed by Jean-Paul Gaultier. The performance garnered a lot of attention, particularly when police in Toronto, Canada, threatened to arrest Madonna and charge her with indecency unless she altered the performance. Madonna refused and the show went ahead unaltered. The threatened arrest failed to materialise. Two different performances were taped and released on video, the Blond Ambition – Japan Tour 90, taped in Yokohama, Japan, on April 27, 1990, and the Live! – Blond Ambition World Tour 90, taped in Nice, France, on August 5, 1990. During The Girlie Show World Tour in 1993, Madonna wore a tuxedo and adopted a Marlene Dietrich-like persona, singing the song with a thick German accent. She sang the word 'virgin' as '(w)irgin', while including a quotation from Dietrich's signature tune, "Falling in Love Again (Can't Help It)". The overplayed accent and three-quarter time signature gave the performance a sense of parody. Dietrich's look in the 1930 film Morocco inspired the whole performance. The performance was included on The Girlie Show – Live Down Under home video release, recorded on November 19, 1993 at Sydney, Australia.
In April 2003, while promoting her ninth studio album American Life, an impromptu acoustic performance of the song was done by Madonna at New York's Tower Records. Madonna's performance of "Hollywood" at the 2003 MTV Video Music Awards recreated the 1984 performance of "Like a Virgin". The performance started with Britney Spears emerging from a giant cake singing the first few lines. She was later joined by Christina Aguilera and both of them writhed on the stage while singing. Madonna appeared on the cake dressed as a groom and sang "Hollywood", and ultimately kissed both Spears and Aguilera on the mouth. The performance was met with strong reaction from media.
During the Confessions Tour in 2006, the song was given a horse riding theme. Madonna wore a tight, black body suit, and performed the song atop a studded leather S&M carousel horse, while X-rays of her broken bones, the result of a horse-riding accident on her forty-seventh birthday, flashed on the screens behind her. The performance was included on The Confessions Tour live album, released in 2007. In 2008's Sticky & Sweet Tour, Madonna sang the song in Rome and dedicated the song to Pope Benedict XVI, commenting "I'd like to dedicate this song to the Pope, I know he loves me" and saying that she is a child of God. She asked the audience to sing along with her. The song was again performed on the MDNA Tour of 2012, during the third section of the show. "Like a Virgin" was stripped down to a simple Burlesque-version played on the piano, featuring elements of the soundtrack "Evgeni's Waltz" from the film, W.E.
In 1985, The Lords of the New Church recorded "Like a Virgin" for their compilation album Killer Lords. Gary Hill from Allmusic called the composition as "very funny and obnoxious". The same year, "Weird Al" Yankovic parodied the song with his single "Like a Surgeon" from the album Dare to Be Stupid. Eugene Chadbourne from Allmusic commented: "Turning the tacky Madonna hit inside out and upside down, Yankovic comes up with a hilarious satire of the medical profession." In 1991, Glaswegian band Teenage Fanclub covered "Like a Virgin" on their second album, The King. The song also appears on the soundtrack of the 2001 film Moulin Rouge! and is sung by the characters Harold Zidler, played by Jim Broadbent, and The Duke of Monroth, played by Richard Roxburgh. In 2004, The Meat Purveyors covered the song in a bluegrass medley, pairing it with Madonna's "Lucky Star" and "Burning Up."
In the 2004 film Bridget Jones: The Edge of Reason, the title character teaches the song to women in a Thai prison, after becoming annoyed that they are singing the song badly. She tells them, "Madonna is nothing if not a perfectionist!" In one of the episodes of the TV show Grey's Anatomy, the character of Cristina Yang hums the song during surgery to take the focus off herself. However, when her assisting surgery, Lexie Grey starts singing along, Christina looks venomously at her until she quiets down. In 2009, the song was namechecked in the Train hit single "Hey, Soul Sister" with the lyric "I believe in you/Like a virgin you're Madonna/And I'm always gonna wanna blow your mind". The song was covered in the 2010 Glee episode "The Power of Madonna" by the cast, including Jonathan Groff, Jayma Mays, Lea Michele, Cory Monteith, Matthew Morrison, and Naya Rivera, during a dream sequence by their characters. The same year, Elton John performed a cover version of "Like a Virgin" at the Rainforest Fund Benefit Concert. On September 9, 2011, Vanessa Carlton posted a link to a snippet of her stripped-down cover of the song in her Twitter account. In 2012 Korean girl group 2NE1 released a cover of the song for their debut Japanese album Collection. In 2012, JoJo performed a cover version of "Like a Virgin" at the LACMA for the Harvard Westlake Charity.
After the song and its video were released, "Like a Virgin" attracted the attention of family organizations who complained that the video and the song, promoted sex without marriage and undermined family values, offering an unsavoury image of Madonna as a whore. Outraged moralists condemned her as a sex kitten and sought to ban the song and the video. Conservatives were angered that Madonna dared to portray religious symbolism and the virginal wedding attire in a sexual context. Clerk noted the song attracted an unprecedented level of attention from social groups compared to any female singer's song. "The main problem was that most of them listened superficially to the lyric of the song, imagining that it detailed or called on an innocent's sexual initiation." While one section of the population were outraged at the scandal, other were taking joy at the very notion of a virginal Madonna, who retorted by saying,
I was surprised by how people reacted to "Like a Virgin" because when I did that song, to me, I was singing about how something made me feel a certain way – brand-new and fresh – and everyone interpreted it as I don't want to be a virgin anymore. Fuck my brains out! That's not what I sang at all. "Like a Virgin" was always absolutely ambiguous.
The song's influence was most profound on the younger generation. Madonna's public persona of an indomitable, sexually unashamed, supremely confident woman struck a chord with them. Biographer Andrew Morton noted that most of Madonna's admirers were females, who were born-and-brought-up with an image of old-fashioned stereotypes of women as virginal brides, or as whores, or with feminist values that rejected the use of a woman's looks for her self-advancement. Author William McKeen of Rock and roll is here to stay: an anthology commented that with the song, Madonna became the last word in attitude and fashion for young girls of that time. He compared that image of Madonna with that of Barbie. McKeen explained that Madonna intermixed middle-class ideas of femininity with examples of what femininity meant to her, which was having equal opportunity. She offered an aggressive sexuality that implied it was acceptable for women not only to initiate relationships, but also enjoy them. In addition, according to Morton, at a time when eighties fashions were promoting flat-chested, stick-thin women as ideals of beauty, the more curvaceous Madonna made average girls feel that it was fine to be in the shape they were. A new word called 'Madonna wannabe' was introduced to describe the thousands of girls who tried to emulate Madonna's style. At one point, Macy's allotted an entire floor area to the sale of Madonna-look clothing, including cut-off gloves, rubber bangles and lacy leggings, which prompted Madonna herself to later comment "that's a riot, because I was just making the best of my situation." University professors, gender-studies experts and feminists earnestly started discussing her role as a post-modernist style and cultural icon. According to author Debbi Voller, "Like a Virgin" gave rise to the icon Madonna.
In the opening scene of the 1992 film Reservoir Dogs, written and directed by Quentin Tarantino, he was shown talking about the song (as the character Mr Brown), and insisting that "Like a Virgin" is a "metaphor for big dicks". When Madonna met Tarantino at a party, after the film was released, she gave him an autographed copy of her Erotica album, signing "Quentin: it's about love, not dick".
Credits and personnelแก้ไข
- Madonna – vocals
- Billy Steinberg – lyricist
- Tom Kelly – writer
- Nile Rodgers – producer, drum programming, guitar
- Bernard Edwards – bass
- Tony Thompson – drums
- Rob Sabino – bass synthesizer, assorted synthesizers
- Jellybean Benitez – 12" remixer
Credits adapted from the album liner notes.
Charts and certificationsแก้ไข
|"I Just Called to Say I Love You" by Stevie Wonder||Australian Kent Music Report number-one single
(December 10, 1984 – January 7, 1985)
|"Do They Know It's Christmas?" by Band Aid|
|"Big in Japan" by Alphaville||U.S. Billboard Hot Dance Club Play number-one single
(December 15, 1984 – January 5, 1985)
|"We Are the Young" by Dan Hartman|
"Out of Touch" by Daryl Hall and John Oates
|U.S. Billboard Hot 100 number-one single
December 22, 1984 – January 28, 1985
"I Want to Know What Love Is" by Foreigner
|"Do They Know It's Christmas?" by Band Aid||Canadian RPM Singles Chart number-one single
(January 19, 1985)
|"Careless Whisper" by Wham!|
|"Overnight Success" by Teri DeSario||Japanese International Singles Chart
(February 11, 1985 – February 25, 1985)
|"Easy Lover" by Philip Bailey and Phil Collins|
- Bronson 2003, p. 600
- Scaggs, Austin (ตุลาคม 29, 2009). "Madonna Looks Back: The Rolling Stone Interview". Rolling Stone. San Francisco: Jann Wenner (1090): 51. ISSN 0035-791X.
- Buskin, Richard (กันยายน 2007). "Classic Tracks: Madonna 'Like A Virgin'". Sound on Sound. SOS Publications Group. สืบค้นเมื่อ กุมภาพันธ์ 18, 2010.
- Rosen 1996, p. 283
- Rooksby 2004, p. 17
- "Digital Sheet Music – Madonna – Like a Virgin". Musicnotes.com. Alfred Publishing. สืบค้นเมื่อ มกราคม 7, 2010.
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas (กันยายน 13, 2002). "Like a Virgin > Overview". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. สืบค้นเมื่อ มกราคม 11, 2010.
- Miller, Debbie (มกราคม 17, 1985). "Madonna: Like A Virgin : Music Reviews". Rolling Stone. Jann Wenner. สืบค้นเมื่อ มกราคม 11, 2010.
- Karger, Dave (พฤศจิกายน 10, 1995). "Madonna – Like a What?". Entertainment Weekly. Time Inc. สืบค้นเมื่อ มกราคม 11, 2010.
- Farber, Jim (กรกฎาคม 20, 2001). "The Girl Material". Entertainment Weekly. Time Inc. สืบค้นเมื่อ มกราคม 11, 2010.
- Cinquemani, Sal (กันยายน 9, 2001). "Madonna: Like a Virgin (Remaster)". Slant Magazine. สืบค้นเมื่อ มกราคม 11, 2010.
- Soto, Alfred (ตุลาคม 23, 2007). "Madonna – Like a Virgin / The Immaculate Collection". Stylus Magazine. สืบค้นเมื่อ มกราคม 11, 2010.
- Henderson, Katie (ธันวาคม 7, 2008). "Flashback: December 1984: Frankie Goes To Hollywood's Christmas No. 1". The Guardian. สืบค้นเมื่อ มกราคม 12, 2010.
- Paoletta, Michael (พฤศจิกายน 24, 1984). "Album Reviews: Spotlight". Billboard. New York: Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 96 (47). ISSN 0006-2510. สืบค้นเมื่อ มกราคม 21, 2010.
- "Rolling Stone & MTV: '100 Greatest Pop Songs': 1-50". Rolling Stone. Jann Wenner. 989 (23): 78. มกราคม 7, 2001. ISSN 0035-791X.
- Reporter, Associated Press (มิถุนายน 12, 2003). "VH1's '100 Greatest Songs of the Past 25 Years'". The Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax Media. สืบค้นเมื่อ มกราคม 11, 2010.
- "Billboard Celebrates the 50th Anniversary of the Hot 100 with All-Time Charts". Reuters. เมษายน 11, 2008. สืบค้นเมื่อ มกราคม 11, 2010.
- Reporter, Staff (ธันวาคม 9, 2003). "Top 20 Madonna Singles of All-time". Q. San Francisco: Bauer Media Group. 19 (23). ISSN 0955-4955.
- "The Billboard Hot 100: Week Ending November 17, 1984". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. พฤศจิกายน 17, 1984. สืบค้นเมื่อ มกราคม 8, 2010.
- "The Billboard Hot 100: Week Ending December 22, 1984". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. ธันวาคม 22, 1984. สืบค้นเมื่อ มกราคม 8, 2010.
- "Madonna – Like a Virgin – Single certification". Recording Industry Association of America. มกราคม 10, 1985. สืบค้นเมื่อ มกราคม 11, 2010.
- Grein, Paul (พฤษภาคม 14, 1989). "New Golden Rule: 500,000 Sales Mark for All Singles". Los Angeles Times. Tribune Company. สืบค้นเมื่อ ธันวาคม 22, 2010.
- "Madonna > Charts & Awards > Billboard Singles". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. สืบค้นเมื่อ มกราคม 8, 2010.
- "Top Pop Albums 1985". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 97 (52). ธันวาคม 28, 1985. ISSN 0006-2510.
- "Top Singles – Volume 41, No. 12, November 24, 1984". RPM. RPM Music Publications Ltd. พฤศจิกายน 24, 1984. สืบค้นเมื่อ มกราคม 8, 2010.
- "Top Singles – Volume 41, No. 19, January 19, 1985". RPM. RPM Music Publications Ltd. มกราคม 19, 1985. สืบค้นเมื่อ มกราคม 8, 2010.
- "Top Singles – Volume 42, No. 8, May 04 1985". RPM. RPM Music Publications Ltd. พฤษภาคม 4, 1985. สืบค้นเมื่อ มกราคม 8, 2010.
- "RPM's Top 100 Singles Of 1985". RPM. RPM Music Publications Ltd. ธันวาคม 28, 1985. สืบค้นเมื่อ กุมภาพันธ์ 2, 2010.
- "Chart Stats – Madonna – Like a Virgin". The Official Charts Company. Chartstats.com. มกราคม 12, 1985.
- "BPI Certification database". British Phonographic Industry. สืบค้นเมื่อ มกราคม 8, 2010.
- "Madonna: The Official Top 40". MTV. MTV Networks. สืบค้นเมื่อ ธันวาคม 20, 2010.
- "Madonna – Like a Virgin (song)" (ภาษาDutch). Ultratop 50. Hung Medien. สืบค้นเมื่อ มกราคม 8, 2010.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
- "Madonna – Like a Virgin – Song details" (ภาษาDutch). VRT Top 30. มีนาคม 11, 1985. สืบค้นเมื่อ มกราคม 13, 2010.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
- "Chartverfolgung > Madonna > Like a Virgin" (ภาษาGerman). Media Control Charts. Musicline.de. มกราคม 28, 1985. สืบค้นเมื่อ มกราคม 8, 2010.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
- "Irish Singles Chart – Search for song". Irish Recorded Music Association. ธันวาคม 15, 1985. สืบค้นเมื่อ มกราคม 8, 2010.
- "Madonna – Like a Virgin" (ภาษาItalian). Federation of the Italian Music Industry. สืบค้นเมื่อ มกราคม 8, 2010.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
- Kent, David (1993). Australian Chart Book 1970–1992 (doc). Australian Chart Book, St Ives, N.S.W. ISBN 0-646-11917-6.
- "ライク・ア・ヴァージ Japanese Singles Chart" (ภาษาJapanese). Oricon. กุมภาพันธ์ 11, 1985. สืบค้นเมื่อ มกราคม 8, 2010.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
- "Eurochart Hot 100 Singles". Billboard. New York: Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 95 (21): 53. กุมภาพันธ์ 23, 1985. ISSN 0006-2510.
- Taraborrelli 2002, p. 765
- Michael 2004, p. 65
- Plant 2002, p. 415
- Guilbert 2002, p. 78
- Whiteley 2000, p. 136
- Tannenbaum & Craig 2011, p. 15
- Plant 2002, p. 413
- Plant 2002, p. 419
- Clerk 2002, p. 41
- "MTV Video Music Awards – 1986". MTV. MTV Networks. สืบค้นเมื่อ มกราคม 12, 2010.
- "MTV Video Music Awards – 1991". MTV. MTV Networks. สืบค้นเมื่อ มกราคม 12, 2010.
- "VH1: 100 Greatest Videos". VH1. MTV Networks. กุมภาพันธ์ 2, 2001. สืบค้นเมื่อ มกราคม 12, 2010.
- Vena, Jocelyn (สิงหาคม 12, 2009). "Can Lady Gaga Top These Iconic MTV VMA Performances?". MTV (MTV Networks). สืบค้นเมื่อ มกราคม 12, 2010.
- Madonna (1985). Live – The Virgin Tour (VHS). Warner- Bros. Records.
- Metz & Benson 1999, p. 11
- Madonna (1987). Who's That Girl – Live in Japan (VHS). Warner-Pioneer Japan.
- Phares, Heather. "Ciao Italia: Live in Italy (Video) > Overview". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. สืบค้นเมื่อ มีนาคม 18, 2009.
- Guilbert 2002, p. 76
- Madonna (1990). Blond Ambition – Japan Tour 90 (VHS). Warner-Pioneer Japan.
- Madonna (1990). Live! – Blond Ambition World Tour 90 (Laserdisc). Pioneer Artists.
- Fouz-Hernández & Jarman-Ivens 2004, p. 80
- Madonna (1993). The Girlie Show – Live Down Under (VHS). Warner Music Vision.
- Christman, Ed (พฤษภาคม 10, 2003). "Retail Track: Madonna Makes Music". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 115 (19): 45. ISSN 0006-2510.
- Wiederhorn, John (สิงหาคม 29, 2003). "Beyonce, 50, Mary J., Metallica Overshadowed By Two Little Kisses". MTV. MTV Networks. สืบค้นเมื่อ มกราคม 12, 2010.
- Hancock, David (กันยายน 5, 2003). "More On The Britney-Madonna Kiss!". CBS News. สืบค้นเมื่อ มกราคม 12, 2010.
- Baltin, Steve (พฤษภาคม 22, 2006). "Madonna Launches Tour With Disco Crucifixion". Rolling Stone. Jann Wenner. คลังข้อมูลเก่า เก็บจาก แหล่งเดิม เมื่อ พฤศจิกายน 23, 2010. สืบค้นเมื่อ ตุลาคม 14, 2009.
- Das, Lina (พฤษภาคม 23, 2006). "Madonna concert review: 'Even the bouncers looked scared'". Daily Mail. Associated Newspapers. สืบค้นเมื่อ ตุลาคม 15, 2009.
- Gonzalez, Ed (สิงหาคม 23, 2006). "Madonna: Confessions Tour". Slant Magazine. สืบค้นเมื่อ ตุลาคม 15, 2009.
- Madonna (2007). The Confessions Tour (CD, DVD). Warner Music Vision.
- Michaels, Sean (กันยายน 8, 2008). "Madonna dedicates Like a Virgin to the Pope". The Guardian. สืบค้นเมื่อ มกราคม 12, 2010.
- Ganz, Caryn (กันยายน 10, 2012). "Act of God: Madonna's MDNA Tour Comes to Yankee Stadium". Spin. Buzz Media. สืบค้นเมื่อ ธันวาคม 11, 2012.
- Hill, Gary (เมษายน 9, 2001). "Killer Lords > Overview". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. สืบค้นเมื่อ มกราคม 12, 2010.
- Chadbourne, Eugene (กันยายน 2, 2001). "Dare to Be Stupid > Overview". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. สืบค้นเมื่อ มกราคม 12, 2010.
- "The King > Overview". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. มกราคม 8, 2002. สืบค้นเมื่อ มกราคม 12, 2010.
- "Moulin Rouge: Collector's Edition > Overview". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. ธันวาคม 5, 2001. สืบค้นเมื่อ มกราคม 12, 2010.
- "They Say Its Your Birthday Madonna". Cover Me Songs. สิงหาคม 9, 2010. สืบค้นเมื่อ สิงหาคม 17, 2010.
- Travers, Peter (พฤศจิกายน 16, 2004). "Review: Bridget Jones: The Edge of Reason". Rolling Stone. Jann Wenner. สืบค้นเมื่อ มกราคม 12, 2010.
- Burrows, Laura (พฤษภาคม 9, 2008). "Grey's Anatomy: "The Becoming" Review". IGN. News Corporation. สืบค้นเมื่อ มกราคม 12, 2010.
- "Train - Hey Soul Sister Lyrics". Metrolyrics.com. สืบค้นเมื่อ พฤศจิกายน 16, 2012.
- Bentley, Jean (เมษายน 21, 2010). "'Glee' Recap: Madonna Invades William McKinley High". MTV (MTV Networks). สืบค้นเมื่อ เมษายน 21, 2010.
- Prince, David J. (พฤษภาคม 14, 2010). "Springsteen Joins Lagy Gaga, Elton John At Rainforest Benefit". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. สืบค้นเมื่อ พฤศจิกายน 13, 2010.
- "Discography" (ภาษาJapanese). Avex Marketing Inc. สืบค้นเมื่อ มีนาคม 24, 2012.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
- "JoJo Performs 'Like a Virgin' at Charity Event". Rap-Up. พฤษภาคม 2, 2012. สืบค้นเมื่อ ธันวาคม 20, 2012.
- Cross 2007, p. 31
- Voller 1999, p. 18
- Morton 2002, p. 766
- McKeen 2000, p. 232
- Like a Virgin (7-inch Single liner notes). Madonna. Sire Records. 1984. W 9210.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Like a Virgin (United States 12-inch Maxi Single liner notes). Madonna. Sire Records. 1984. 20239-0.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Like a Virgin (Canadian 12-inch Maxi Single liner notes). Madonna. Sire Records. 1984. 92 02390Q.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Like a Virgin (Japanese 12-inch Promo Maxi Single liner notes). Madonna. Sire Records. 1984. PS-258.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Like a Virgin (LP, Vinyl, CD). Madonna. Sire Records. 1984. 9 25157-2.CS1 maint: others (link)
- "Finnish Singles Chart". Hung Medien. ธันวาคม 1984. สืบค้นเมื่อ กันยายน 9, 2012.
- "Jaaroverzichten 1984". Dutch Top 40. Hung Medien (ภาษาDutch). สืบค้นเมื่อ เมษายน 4, 2011.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
- "Top Annuali Single: 1985" (ภาษาItalian). Federation of the Italian Music Industry. สืบค้นเมื่อ กรกฎาคม 19, 2011.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
- "Billboard Hot 100 Chart 50th Anniversary". Billboard.com. กันยายน 14, 1984. สืบค้นเมื่อ พฤศจิกายน 16, 2012.
- "Madonna: The Official Top 40". Official Charts Company. MTV. สืบค้นเมื่อ พฤษภาคม 2, 2013.
- "British single certifications – Madonna – Like a Virgin" (ภาษาอังกฤษ). British Phonographic Industry. สืบค้นเมื่อ มกราคม 13, 2010. Select singles in the Format field. Select Gold in the Certification field. Type Like a Virgin in the "Search BPI Awards" field and then press Enter.
- Metz & Benson 1999, p. 111
- "American single certifications – Madonna – Like a Virgin" (ภาษาอังกฤษ). Recording Industry Association of America. สืบค้นเมื่อ มกราคม 13, 2010. If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Single, then click SEARCH.
- Bronson, Fred (2003), The Billboard Book of Number 1 Hits, Billboard Books, ISBN 0-8230-7677-6
- Clerk, Carol (2002), Madonnastyle, Omnibus Press, ISBN 0-7119-8874-9
- Cross, Mary (2007), Madonna: A Biography, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-313-33811-6
- Fouz-Hernández, Santiago; Jarman-Ivens, Freya (2004), Madonna's Drowned Worlds, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., ISBN 0-7546-3372-1
- Guilbert, Georges-Claude (2002), Madonna as postmodern myth, McFarland, ISBN 0-7864-1408-1
- McKeen, William (2000), Rock and roll is here to stay, W. W. Norton & Company, ISBN 0-393-04700-8
- Metz, Andrew; Benson, Carol (1999), The Madonna Companion: Two Decades of Commentary, Music Sales Group, ISBN 0-8256-7194-9
- Michael, Mick St. (2004), Madonna 'talking': Madonna in Her Own Words, Omnibus Press, ISBN 1-84449-418-7
- Morton, Andrew (2002), Madonna, Macmillan Publishers, ISBN 0-312-98310-7
- Plant, Margaret (2002), Venice: fragile city, 1797–1997, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-08386-6
- Rooksby, Rikky (2004), The Complete Guide to the Music of Madonna, Omnibus Press, ISBN 0-7119-9883-3
- Rosen, Craig (1996), The Billboard Book of Number One Albums, Billboard Books, ISBN 0-8230-7586-9
- Tannenbaum, Rob; Marks, Craig (2011). I Want My MTV: The Uncensored Story of the Music Video Revolution. Penguin Books. ISBN 9781101526415.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Taraborrelli, Randy J. (2002), Madonna: An Intimate Biography, Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-7432-2880-4
- Voller, Debbie (1999), Madonna: The Style Book, Omnibus Press, ISBN 0-7119-7511-6
- Whiteley, Sheila (2000), Women and popular music: sexuality, identity, and subjectivity, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-21190-5