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'''คัพภวิทยา''' หรือ '''วิทยาเอ็มบริโอ''' ([[ภาษาอังกฤษ|อังกฤษ]]: embryologyEmbryology) เป็นการศึกษาการเจริญเติบโตของ[[ตัวอ่อนเอ็มบริโอ]]ในสิ่งมีชีวิต การพัฒนา และ เอ็มบริโอคือขั้นหนึ่งของการเกิดอวัยวะต่าง ๆ เจริญของ[[สิ่งมีชีวิต]]ก่อนคลอดหรือออกจากไข่ หรือในแต่ละช่วงเวลา ของพืชคือในระยะก่อนการพัฒนาตัวอ่อนงอก (germination)
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[[ภาพ:Embryo, 8 cells.jpg|thumb|240px|right|ตัวอ่อนระยะมอรูลา (Morula) , ระยะ 8 เซลล์]]
 
Embryology refers to the development of the fertilized egg cell ([[zygote]]) and its differentiation into tissues and organs. After cleavage, the dividing cells, or [[morula]], becomes a hollow ball, or [[blastula]], which develops a hole or pore at one end.
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[[ภาพ:Blastulation.png|thumb|240px|right|'''1''' - morula, '''2''' - blastula]]
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In animals, the [[blastula]] develops in one of two ways that divides the whole animal kingdom into two halves. If in the [[blastula]] the first pore ([[blastopore]]) becomes the mouth of the animal, it is a [[protostome]]; if the first pore becomes the anus then it is a [[deuterostome]]. The [[protostomes]] include most [[invertebrate]] animals, such as insects, worms and molluscs, while the [[deuterostomes]] includes more advanced animals including the [[vertebrates]]. In due course, the [[blastula]] changes into a more differentiated structure called the [[gastrula]].
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[[ภาพ:Gastrulation.png|thumb|240px|'''1''' - blastula, '''2''' - gastrula with blastopore; '''orange''' - ectoderm, '''red''' - endoderm.]]
 
The [[gastrula]] with its [[blastopore]] soon develops three distinct layers of cells (the [[germ layers]]) from which all the bodily organs and tissues then develop:
 
* The innermost layer, or [[endoderm]], gives rise to the digestive organs, lungs and bladder.
* The middle layer, or [[mesoderm]], gives rise to the muscles, skeleton and blood system.
* The outer layer of cells, or [[ectoderm]], gives rise to the nervous system and skin.
 
In humans, the term embryo refers to the ball of dividing cells from the moment the [[zygote]] implants itself in the [[uterus]] wall until the end of the eighth week after conception. Beyond the eighth week, the developing human is then called a fetus. Embryos in many species often appear similar to one another in early developmental stages. The reason for this similarity is because species have adapted into the environment of pregnancy. These similarities among species are called [[analogous structures]], which are structures that have the same or similar function and mechanism, but evolved separately.
 
[[ภาพ:6 weeks pregnant.png|right|thumb|Human embryo at six weeks gestational age]]
 
== History ==
With a very long history, embryology is a subject that has engaged the minds of some of the most brilliant and original biological thinkers and experimentalists.
 
[[ภาพ:Haeckel drawings.jpg|150px|right|Ernst Haeckel embryo drawings]]
 
In modern times, these include [[Gavin de Beer]], [[Charles Darwin]], [[Ernst Haeckel]], [[J.B.S. Haldane]], and [[Joseph Needham]], while much early embryology came from the work of [[Aristotle]] and the great [[Italy|Italian]] anatomists: [[Aldrovandi]], [[Aranzio]], [[Leonardo da Vinci]], [[Marcello Malpighi]], [[Gabriele Falloppia]], [[Girolamo Cardano]], [[Emilio Parisano]], [[Fortunio Liceti]], [[Stefano Lorenzini]], [[Spallanzani]], [[Enrico Sertoli]], [[Mauro Rusconi]], etc.<ref>http://www.ijdb.ehu.es/fullaccess/fulltext.0009/ft515.pdf Massimo De Felici, Gregorio Siracus, ''The rise of embryology in Italy: from the Renaissance to the early 20th Century,'' Int. J. Dev. Biol. 44: 515-521 (2000) </ref> Other important contributors include [[William Harvey]], [[Kaspar Friedrich Wolff]], [[Pander]], [[Karl Ernst von Baer]], and [[August Weismann]].
 
[[ภาพ:10dayMouseEmb.jpg|thumb|150px|right|Histological film 10 day mouse embryo]]
 
After the [[1950s]], with the [[DNA]] helical structure being unravelled and the increasing knowledge in the field of [[molecular biology]], [[developmental biology]] emerged as a field of study which attempts to correlate the genes with morphological change; and so tries to determine which genes are responsible for each morphological change that takes place in an embryo, and how these genes are regulated.
 
== Vertebrate and invertebrate embryology ==
Many principles of embryology apply to both invertebrate animals as well as to vertebrates.<ref> Parker, Sybil. "Invertebrate Embryology," ''[http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0079115047&id=CMC32Rmo9tYC&q=%22invertebrate+embryology%22+and+%22mcgraw-hill%22&dq=%22invertebrate+embryology%22+and+%22mcgraw-hill%22&pgis=1 McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology]'' (McGraw-Hill 1997).</ref> Therefore, the study of invertebrate embryology has advanced the study of vertebrate embryology. However, there are many differences as well. For example, numerous invertebrate species release a [[larva]] before development is complete; at the end of the larval period, an animal for the first time comes to resemble an adult similar to it parents. Although invertebrate embryology is similar in some ways for different invertebrate animals, there are also countless variations. For instance, while spiders proceed directly from egg to adult form many insects develop through at least one larval stage.
 
[[ภาพ:Beetle larvae.jpg|thumb|150px|right| Beetle larvae]]
 
== Modern embryology research ==
Currently, embryology has become an important research area for studying the [[genetic]] control of the development process (e.g. [[morphogens]]) , its link to [[cell signalling]], its importance for the study of certain diseases and [[mutation]]s and in links to [[stem cell]] research.
 
== See also ==
* [[Ontogeny]]
* [[Embryogenesis]]
* [[Recapitulation theory]]
* [[Prenatal development]]
* [[Protostomes]]
* [[Deuterostomes]]
* [[Germ layers]]
* [[Epigenesis (biology)]]
* [[Developmental biology]]
* [[Cell signalling]]
* [[Hedgehog signaling pathway]]
* [[Morphogens]]
* [[Embryo drawing]]
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== อ้างอิง ==
{{รายการอ้างอิง}}
* [http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/ UNSW Embryology] Large resource of information and media
* [http://www2.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/mwmednlm?book=Medical&va=embryo] Definition of embryo according to Webster
 
== หนังสืออ่านเพิ่มเติม ==
* Scott F. Gilbert. ''Developmental Biology''. Sinauer, 2003. ISBN 0-87893-258-5.
* Lewis Wolpert. ''Principles of Development''. Oxford University Press, 2006. ISBN 0-19-927536-X.
 
== แหล่งข้อมูลอื่น ==
{{commonscat|Embryology}}
* [http://www.rsrevision.com/Alevel/ethics/embryology/index.htm Embryo Research] UK philosophy and ethics website discussing the ethics of embryology
* [http://www.religioustolerance.org/res_emb.htm Human embryo research] Canadian website covering the ethics of human embryo research
* [http://www.indiana.edu/~anat550/embryo_main/index.html University of Indiana's Human Embryology Animations]
* '''''The Developing Human (Keith L.Moore'') ''' http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rb0uZefwQnc
 
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