ผลต่างระหว่างรุ่นของ "ผู้ใช้:Pilarbini/กระบะทราย/กรุ 1"

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ป้ายระบุ: เครื่องมือแก้ไขต้นฉบับปี 2560
(แปะ)
ป้ายระบุ: เครื่องมือแก้ไขต้นฉบับปี 2560
 
{|{{Infobox aircraftvideo begingame
| collapsible =
|name= Concorde
| state =
|image= File:British Airways Concorde G-BOAC 03.jpg
| italic title =
|caption= British Airways Concorde in 1986
| title = เดดเซลส์
|alt=
| image = Dead cells cover art.png
}}{{Infobox aircraft type
| alt =
|type= [[Supersonic transport]]
| caption =
|manufacturer= [[British Aircraft Corporation|BAC]] <small>(later [[British Aerospace|BAe]] and [[BAE Systems]])</small><br />[[Sud Aviation]] <small>(later [[Aérospatiale]] and [[Airbus]])</small>
| developer = [[Motion Twin]]
|designer=
| composer = Yoann Laulan
|first flight= 2 March 1969
| publisher = Motion Twin
|introduction= 21 January 1976
| series =
|national origin= United Kingdom and France
| engine =
|retired= 24 October 2003<ref name="jlfin" /><!-- final flight, empty, to Filton came a month later --->
| platforms = [[Microsoft Windows]], [[macOS]], [[Linux]], [[PlayStation 4]], [[Xbox One]], [[Nintendo Switch]]
|status= Retired
| released = 7 สิงหาคม พ.ศ. 2561
|primary user= [[British Airways]] <!--Limit one (1) main user. Top 4 users listed in 'primary user' and 'more users' fields based on number of their fleets. -->
| genre = [[Roguelike]], [[metroidvania]]
|more users= [[Air France]] <br />See ''[[#Operators|Operators]]'' below for others <!-- Limit is three (3) in 'more users' field, four (4) total users with primary user. Please separate with <br />. -->
| modes =
|produced= 1965–1979
|number built= 20 (inc. 6 non-commercial aircraft){{sfn|Towey|2007|p=359}}<ref>{{cite news |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/850899.stm |title=Ageing luxury jet |publisher=BBC News |date=25 July 2000}}</ref>
|program cost=[[Pound sterling|£]]1.3&nbsp;billion<ref name=endofdream>{{cite news |url=https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1352927/Is-this-the-end-of-the-Concorde-dream.html |location=London |work=The Daily Telegraph |first=Paul |last=Marston |title=Is this the end of the Concorde dream? |date=16 August 2000}}</ref>
|unit cost = US$33.8M (1972)<ref>{{cite magazine |url=https://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1972/1972%20-%202020.html |title=Airliner price index |magazine=Flight International |date=10 August 1972 |page=183}}</ref><br />£23&nbsp;million in 1977
|variants with their own articles=
}}
|}
 
'''''เดดเซลส์''''' ({{lang-en|Dead Cells}}) เป็น วีดีโอเกมแนว[[โรกไลค์]](roguelike)-[[เมทรอยเวเนีย]] (metroidvania) พัฒนาและเผยแพร่โดย[[โมชันทวิน]] (Motion Twin) Following about a year in [[early access]], ''Dead Cells'' was released for [[Microsoft Windows]], [[macOS]], [[Linux]], [[Nintendo Switch]], [[PlayStation 4]], and [[Xbox One]] on August 7, 2018.
'''เครื่องบินคองคอร์ด''' ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|k|ɒ|n|k|ɔr|d}}) is<!-- Aircraft still exists in museums. Read end of sentence for retired part. --> a British-French [[turbojet]]-powered [[supersonic aircraft|supersonic]] passenger [[jet airliner]] that was operated until 2003. It had a maximum speed over twice the [[speed of sound]] at Mach 2.04 ({{convert|1354|mph|km/h|sigfig=3|abbr=on|disp=or}} at cruise altitude), with seating for 92 to 128 passengers. First flown in 1969, Concorde entered service in 1976 and continued flying for the next 27 years. It is one of only two [[supersonic transport]]s to have been operated commercially; the other is the Soviet-built [[Tupolev Tu-144]], which operated in passenger service from 1977<ref name="Gordon Tu-144">Gordon and Rigmant 2005</ref> to 1978.<ref name="Melik-Karamov 2000">{{Cite web |last= Melik-Karamov [Мелик-Карамов] |first= Vitaly [Виталий] |url=http://www.ropnet.ru/ogonyok/win/200003/03-26-31.html |title= Life and Death of the Tu-144, [Жизнь и смерть самолёта Ту-144] |publisher= Flame [Огонёк] |series= No. 3 |date= January 2000 |archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20001115093200/http://www.ropnet.ru/ogonyok/win/200003/03-26-31.html |archive-date=November 15, 2005}}</ref>
 
In the game, the player takes the role of a body of cells that take control of a corpse in a dungeon, through which they must fight their way out. The player gains various weapons, treasure and other tools through exploration of the procedurally-generated levels to fight undead creatures within it. At times, the player may gain "cells", a type of in-game currency that can be used to purchase permanent upgrades for the player if they reach the vendor between each level. If they fail to reach this vendor before dying, they lose all the cells they gained and must start again. Motion Twin was inspired by ''[[The Binding of Isaac (video game)|The Binding of Isaac]]'' in developing the game.
Concorde was jointly developed and manufactured by Sud Aviation (later Aérospatiale) and the British Aircraft Corporation (BAC) under an Anglo-French treaty. Twenty aircraft were built, including six prototypes and development aircraft. [[Air France]] (AF) and [[British Airways]] (BA) were the only airlines to purchase and fly Concorde. The aircraft was used mainly by wealthy passengers who could afford to pay a high price in exchange for Concorde's speed and luxury service. For example, in 1997, the round-trip ticket price from New York to London was $7995, more than 30 times the cost of the cheapest option to fly this route.<ref>[https://books.google.com/books?id=F2D_CAAAQBAJ&pg=PA1#v=onepage&q&f=false New Design Concepts for High Speed Air Transport] edited by H. Sobieczky (1997)</ref>
 
The original program cost estimate of £70 million<ref>{{Cite |title=Concorde |work=BBC Timewatch documentary |date=2003 |quote=By 1962, the cost estimates had already soared from 70 to 150 million pounds."<br>"[By 1964], costs had doubled yet again to nearly 300 million pounds." <!--The documentary goes on to explain how the international treaty had been written in such a way that if either party wished to back out, the cost penalty for doing so would be exorbitant. (Whereas neither the US nor USSR had such barriers to canceling their SST programs, which both countries eventually did.)-->}}</ref> met huge overruns and delays, with the program eventually costing £1.3 ''billion''.<ref>Other estimates of total program cost exceeded £2 billion.<br>[https://books.google.com/books?id=F2D_CAAAQBAJ&pg=PA3&lpg=PA3#v=onepage&q&f=false New Design Concepts for High Speed Air Transport] edited by H. Sobieczky (1997)<br>Quote:<br>"The program's cost, through March 1976, was put at between 1.5 and 2.1 billion in 1976 pounds sterling, or between 3.6 and 5.1 billion in 1977 U.S. dollars (yearly weighted exchange rates)."</ref> It was this extreme cost that became the main factor in the production run being much smaller than anticipated.<ref>In "Concorde" (BBC Timewatch, 2003) Chris Benjamin, Concorde Administrator (UK) 1971-74 said: "It's really a matter of great regret that an enormous amount of creativity, effort and resources were used to produce this aeroplane which has actually no sustainable benefit at all."</ref> Another major factor which affected the viability of all [[supersonic transport]] programmes was in how supersonic route options were eventually limited to ocean-crossing only to prevent [[sonic boom]] disturbance on populated areas. With only [[Concorde_aircraft_histories#British_production_aircraft|seven airframes]] [[Concorde_aircraft_histories#French_production_aircraft|each]] being operated by the British and French, the per-unit cost were impossible to recoup, so the French and British governments absorbed the development costs. British Airways and Air France were able to operate Concorde at a profit, in spite of very high maintenance costs, because Concorde was able to sustain a high ticket price.
 
Among other [[#Scheduled flights|destinations]], Concorde flew regular [[transatlantic flight]]s from London's [[Heathrow Airport]] and Paris's [[Charles de Gaulle Airport]] to [[John F. Kennedy International Airport]] in New York, [[Washington Dulles International Airport]] in Virginia, and [[Grantley Adams International Airport]] in Barbados; it flew these routes in less than half the time of other airliners.
 
Concorde's name, meaning "harmony" or "union", was chosen to reflect the co-operation on the project between the United Kingdom and France. In the UK, any or all of the type are known simply as ''Concorde'', with no definite article ''the''. Concorde won the 2006 Great British Design Quest organised by the BBC and the [[Design Museum]], beating other well-known designs such as the [[BMC Mini]], the [[miniskirt]], the [[Jaguar E-Type]], the [[London Tube map]] and the [[Supermarine Spitfire]]. The type was retired in 2003, three years after the crash of [[Air France Flight 4590]], in which all passengers and crew were killed. The general downturn in the commercial aviation industry after the [[September 11 attacks]] in 2001 and the end of maintenance support for Concorde by [[Airbus]] (the successor company of both Aérospatiale and BAC) also contributed.<ref name="BBC Concorde Grounded">{{cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/2934257.stm |title=Concorde grounded for good |publisher=BBC News |date=10 April 2003 |accessdate=15 June 2013}}</ref>
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