ผลต่างระหว่างรุ่นของ "เรือวาซา"

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== การเดินทางครั้งแรก ==
[[Image:Voyage of the Vasa 2.svg|thumb|[[สต็อกโฮล์ม]]ตอนกลาง - การเคลื่อนที่ของเรือ ''วาซา'' จากสเคียพสการ์เดน (Skeppsgården) ('อู่ต่อเรือ') ไปยังจุดที่ทอดสมอใกล้ปราสาทเก่าเพื่อตกแต่งและติดตั้งอาวุธในฤดูใบไม้ผลิปี 1628 และจุดสุดท้ายคือจุดที่เรืออับปาง]]
ในวันที่ 10 สิงหาคม 1628 กัปตันเสฟริง ฮานสูน (Söfring Hansson) สั่งให้ ''วาซา'' ออกแล่นเรือครั้งแรกไปยังฐานทัพที่โอลว์สนาบเบน (Älvsnabben) วันนั้นทะเลสงบและมีลมเบาๆเพียงทิศเดียวจากทิศตะวันตกเฉียงใต้ เรือถูกทอดโยง (ฉุดด้วยสมอเรือ) ไปตามริมฝั่งตะวันออกของเมืองมุ่งไปทางใต้ของท่าเรือ ก่อนจะกางใบสี่ใบและแล่นไปทางทิศตะวันออก ประตูปืนถูกเปิดออกและยิงสดุดีเมื่อเรือออกจากสต็อกโฮล์ม<ref name="Vasa"/>
 
<!--As ''Vasa'' passed under the [[Lee side|lee]] of the bluffs to the south (what is now [[Södermalm]]), a gust of wind filled her sails, and she เอียง suddenly to กราบซ้าย. The [[Sheet (sailing)|sheets]] were cast off, and the ship slowly [[Metacentric height|righted herself]] as the gust passed. At Tegelviken, where there is a gap in the bluffs, an even stronger gust again forced the ship onto its port side, this time pushing the open lower gunports under the surface, allowing water to rush in onto the lower gundeck. The water building up on the deck quickly exceeded the ship's minimal ability to right itself, and water continued to pour in until it ran down into the hold; the ship quickly sank to a depth of 32&nbsp;m (105&nbsp;ft) only 120&nbsp;m (390&nbsp;ft) from shore. Survivors clung to debris or the upper masts, which were still above the surface, to save themselves, and many nearby boats rushed to their aid, but despite these efforts and the short distance to land, 30 people perished with the ship, according to reports. ''Vasa'' sank in full view of a crowd of hundreds, if not thousands, of mostly ordinary Stockholmers who had come to see the great ship set sail. The crowd included foreign ambassadors, in effect spies of Gustavus Adolphus' allies and enemies, who also witnessed the catastrophe.<ref>Hocker in Cederlund (2006), pp. 53–54.</ref>
 
=== การสอบสวน ===
The Council sent a letter to the king the day after the loss, telling him of the sinking, but it took over two weeks to reach him in Poland. "Imprudence and negligence" must have been the cause, he wrote angrily in his reply, demanding in no uncertain terms that the guilty parties be punished.<ref name="kv2535"/> Captain Söfring Hansson, who survived the disaster, was immediately taken for questioning. Under initial interrogation, he swore that the guns had been properly secured and that the crew was sober. A full inquest before a tribunal of members of the Privy Council and Admiralty took place at the [[Tre Kronor (castle)|Royal Palace]] on 5 September 1628. Each of the surviving officers was questioned as was the supervising shipwright and a number of expert witnesses. Also present at the inquest was the Admiral of the Realm, [[Carl Gyllenhielm|Carl Carlsson Gyllenhielm]]. The object of the inquest was as much or more to find a scapegoat as to find out why the ship had sunk. Whoever the committee might find guilty for the fiasco would face a severe penalty.<ref name="kv2535">Kvarning (1998), pp. 25–35.</ref>
 
Surviving crew members were questioned one by one about the handling of the ship at the time of the disaster. Was it rigged properly for the wind? Was the crew sober? Was the ballast properly stowed? Were the guns properly secured? However, no-one was prepared to take the blame. Crewmen and contractors formed two camps; each tried to blame the other, and everyone swore he had done his duty without fault and it was during the inquest that the details of the stability demonstration were revealed.<ref>Kvarning (1998), pp. 29–35; Hocker in Cederlund (2006); pp. 55–60.</ref>
 
Next, attention was directed to the shipbuilders. "Why did you build the ship so narrow, so badly and without enough bottom that it capsized?" the prosecutor asked the shipwright Jacobsson.<ref name="Vasa_2">Hocker in Cederlund (2006), p. 36.</ref> Jacobsson stated that he built the ship as directed by Henrik Hybertsson (long since dead and buried), who in turn had followed the specification approved by the king. Jacobsson had in fact widened the ship by 1 foot 5 inches (c. 42&nbsp;cm) after taking over responsibility for the construction, but construction of the ship was too far advanced to allow further widening.<ref name="Vasa_2"/>
 
In the end, no guilty party could be found. The answer Arendt de Groote gave when asked by the court why the ship sank was "Only God knows". Gustavus Adolphus had approved all measurements and armaments, and the ship was built according to the instructions and loaded with the number of guns specified. In the end, no-one was punished or found guilty for negligence, and the blame effectively fell on Henrik Hybertsson.<ref>Kvarning (1998), pp. 25–32.</ref>-->
 
== เชิงอรรถ ==
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