ผลต่างระหว่างรุ่นของ "การอับปางของเรืออาร์เอ็มเอสไททานิก"

 
==15 เมษายน 1912==
=== เตรียมพร้อมสละเรือ ===
<!--[[File:EJ Smith2.jpg|thumb|alt=Photograph of a bearded man wearing a white captain's uniform with crossed arms|Captain [[Edward Smith (sea captain)|Edward J. Smith]] in 1911]]
At 00:05 on 15 April, Captain Smith ordered the ship's lifeboats uncovered and the passengers [[Muster drill|mustered]].{{sfn|Ballard|1987|p=22}} He also ordered the radio operators to begin sending distress calls, which wrongly placed the ship on the west side of the ice belt and directed rescuers to a position that turned out to be inaccurate by about {{convert|13.5|nmi|mi km}}.{{sfn|Ballard|1987|p=199}}{{sfn|Bartlett|2011|p=120}} Below decks, water was pouring into the lowest levels of the ship. As the mail room flooded, the mail sorters made an ultimately futile attempt to save the 400,000&nbsp;items of mail being carried aboard ''Titanic''. Elsewhere, air could be heard being forced out by inrushing water.{{sfn|Bartlett|2011|pp=118–119}} Above them, stewards went door to door, rousing sleeping passengers and crew—''Titanic'' did not have a public address system—and told them to go to the Boat Deck.{{sfn|Barczewski|2006|p=20}}
 
The thoroughness of the muster was heavily dependent on the class of the passengers; the first-class stewards were in charge of only a few cabins, while those responsible for the second- and third-class passengers had to manage large numbers of people. The first-class stewards provided hands-on assistance, helping their charges to get dressed and bringing them out onto the deck. With far more people to deal with, the second- and third-class stewards mostly confined their efforts to throwing open doors and telling passengers to put on lifebelts and come up top. In third class, passengers were largely left to their own devices after being informed of the need to come on deck.{{sfn|Bartlett|2011|p=121}} Many passengers and crew were reluctant to comply, either refusing to believe that there was a problem or preferring the warmth of the ship's interior to the bitterly cold night air. The passengers were not told that the ship was sinking, though a few noticed that she was [[list (watercraft)|listing]].{{sfn|Barczewski|2006|p=20}}
 
Around 00:15, the stewards began ordering the passengers to put on their lifebelts,{{sfn|Bartlett|2011|p=126}} though again, many passengers took the order as a joke.{{sfn|Barczewski|2006|p=20}} Some set about playing an impromptu game of [[association football]] with the ice chunks that were now strewn across the foredeck.{{sfn|Bartlett|2011|p=116}} On the boat deck, as the crew began preparing the lifeboats, it was difficult to hear anything over the noise of high-pressure steam being vented from the boilers and escaping via the valves on the funnels above. [[Lawrence Beesley]] described the sound as "a harsh, deafening boom that made conversation difficult; if one imagines 20&nbsp;locomotives blowing off steam in a low key it would give some idea of the unpleasant sound that met us as we climbed out on the top deck."{{sfn|Beesley|1960|pp=32–33}} The noise was so loud that the crew had to use hand signals to communicate.{{sfn|Bartlett|2011|p=124}}
 
''Titanic'' had a total of 20&nbsp;lifeboats, comprising 16&nbsp;wooden boats on [[davit]]s, eight on either side of the ship, and four collapsible boats with wooden bottoms and canvas sides.{{sfn|Barczewski|2006|p=20}} The collapsibles were stored upside down with the sides folded in, and would have to be erected and moved to the davits for launching.{{sfn|Lord|1987|p=90}} Two were stored under the wooden boats and the other two were lashed atop the officers' quarters.{{sfn|Barczewski|2006|p=21}} The position of the latter would make them extremely difficult to launch, as they weighed several tons each and had to be manhandled down to the boat deck.{{sfn|Bartlett|2011|p=123}} On average, the lifeboats could take up to 68&nbsp;people each, and collectively they could accommodate 1,178&nbsp;– barely half the number of people on board and a third of the number the ship was licensed to carry. The shortage of lifeboats was not because of a lack of space nor because of cost. ''Titanic'' had been designed to accommodate up to 68&nbsp;lifeboats{{sfn|Hutchings|de Kerbrech|2011|p=112}}&nbsp;– enough for everyone on board&nbsp;– and the price of an extra 32&nbsp;lifeboats would only have been some {{US$|16,000|1912|round=-3}},{{Inflation-fn|US}} a tiny fraction of the $7.5&nbsp;million that the company had spent on ''Titanic''.
 
In an emergency, lifeboats at the time were intended to be used to transfer passengers off the distressed ship and onto a nearby vessel.{{sfn|Hutchings|de Kerbrech|2011|p=116}}{{efn|An incident confirmed this philosophy while ''Titanic'' was under construction: the White Star liner ''Republic'' was involved in a collision and sank. Even though she did not have enough lifeboats for all passengers, they were all saved because the ship was able to stay afloat long enough for them to be ferried to ships coming to assist.{{sfn|Chirnside|2004|p=29}}}} It was therefore commonplace for liners to have far fewer lifeboats than needed to accommodate all their passengers and crew, and of the 39&nbsp;British liners of the time of over {{convert|10000|LT|t}}, 33 had too few lifeboat places to accommodate everyone on board.{{sfn|Bartlett|2011|p=30}} The White Star Line desired the ship to have a wide promenade deck with uninterrupted views of the sea, which would have been obstructed by a continuous row of lifeboats.{{sfn|Marshall|1912|p=141}}
 
Captain Smith was an experienced seaman who had served for 40&nbsp;years at sea, including 27&nbsp;years in command. This was the first crisis of his career, and he would have known that even if all the boats were fully occupied, more than a thousand people would remain on the ship as she went down with little or no chance of survival.{{sfn|Ballard|1987|p=22}} According to some sources, upon grasping the enormity of what was about to happen, Smith became paralysed by indecision, had a mental breakdown or nervous collapse, and became lost in a trance-like daze, very ineffective and inactive in preventing loss of life.{{sfn|Butler|1998|pp=250–252}}{{sfn|Cox|1999|pp=50–52}} According to others, Smith was in charge and full of action during the crisis. After the collision, Smith immediately began an investigation into the nature and extent of the damage, personally making two inspection trips below deck to look for damage, and preparing the wireless men for the possibility of having to call for help. He erred on the side of caution by ordering his crew to begin preparing the lifeboats for loading, and to get the passengers into their lifebelts before he was told by Andrews that the ship was sinking. Smith was observed all around the decks, personally overseeing and helping to load the lifeboats, interacting with passengers, and striking a delicate balance between trying to instil urgency to follow evacuation orders while simultaneously attempting to dissuade panic.{{sfn|Fitch|Layton|Wormstedt|2012|pp=162–163}}
 
Fourth Officer [[Joseph Boxhall]] was told by Smith at around 12:25 that the ship would sink,{{sfn|Fitch|Layton|Wormstedt|2012|p=183}} while Quartermaster George Rowe was so unaware of the emergency that after the evacuation had started, he phoned the bridge from his watch station to ask why he had just seen a lifeboat go past.{{sfn|Bartlett|2011|p=106}} The crew was unprepared for the emergency, as lifeboat training had been minimal. Only one [[Muster drill|lifeboat drill]] had been conducted while the ship was docked at Southampton. It was a cursory effort, consisting of two boats being lowered, each manned by one officer and four men who merely rowed around the dock for a few minutes before returning to the ship. The boats were supposed to be stocked with emergency supplies, but ''Titanic''{{'}}s passengers later found that they had only been partially provisioned despite the efforts of the ship's chief baker, [[Charles Joughin]], and his staff to do so.{{sfn|Mowbray|1912|p=279}} No lifeboat or fire drills had been conducted since ''Titanic'' left Southampton.{{sfn|Mowbray|1912|p=279}} A lifeboat drill had been scheduled for the Sunday morning before the ship sank, but was cancelled for unknown reasons by Captain Smith.{{sfn|Aldridge|2008|p=47}}
 
Lists had been posted on the ship assigning crew members to specific lifeboat stations, but few appeared to have read them or to have known what they were supposed to do. Most of the crew were not seamen, and even some of those had no prior experience of rowing a boat. They were now faced with the complex task of coordinating the lowering of 20&nbsp;boats carrying a possible total of 1,100&nbsp;people {{convert|70|ft|m}} down the sides of the ship.{{sfn|Bartlett|2011|p=123}} Thomas E. Bonsall, a historian of the disaster, has commented that the evacuation was so badly organised that "even if they had the number [of] lifeboats they needed, it is impossible to see how they could have launched them" given the lack of time and poor leadership.{{sfn|Cox|1999|p=52}}
 
By about 00:20, 40&nbsp;minutes after the collision, the loading of the lifeboats was under way. Second Officer Lightoller recalled afterwards that he had to cup both hands over Smith's ears to communicate over the racket of escaping steam, and said, "I yelled at the top of my voice, 'Hadn't we better get the women and children into the boats, sir?' He heard me and nodded reply."{{sfn|Gleicher|2006|p=65}} Smith then ordered Lightoller and Murdoch to "put the women and children in and lower away".{{sfn|Lord|2005|p=37}} Lightoller took charge of the boats on the port side and Murdoch took charge of those on the starboard side. The two officers interpreted the "women and children" evacuation order differently; Murdoch took it to mean [[women and children first]], while Lightoller took it to mean women and children only. Lightoller lowered lifeboats with empty seats if there were no women and children waiting to board, while Murdoch allowed a limited number of men to board if all the nearby women and children had embarked.{{sfn|Barczewski|2006|p=21}}
 
Neither officer knew how many people could safely be carried in the boats as they were lowered and they both erred on the side of caution by not filling them. They could have been lowered quite safely with their full complement of 68&nbsp;people, especially with the highly favourable weather and sea conditions.{{sfn|Barczewski|2006|p=21}} Had this been done, an additional 500&nbsp;people could have been saved; instead, hundreds of people, predominantly men, were left on board as lifeboats were launched with many seats vacant.{{sfn|Bartlett|2011|p=124}}{{sfn|Cox|1999|p=52}}
 
Few passengers at first were willing to board the lifeboats and the officers in charge of the evacuation found it difficult to persuade them. Millionaire [[John Jacob Astor IV|John Jacob Astor]] declared: "We are safer here than in that little boat."{{sfn|Lord|1976|pp=73–74}} Some passengers refused flatly to embark. J. Bruce Ismay, realising the urgency of the situation, roamed the starboard boat deck urging passengers and crew to board the boats. A trickle of women, couples and single men were persuaded to board starboard lifeboat No.&nbsp;7, which became the first lifeboat to be lowered.{{sfn|Lord|1976|pp=73–74}}-->
 
=== การออกเดินทางของเรือชูชีพ ===
<!--{{further|Lifeboats of the RMS Titanic}}
[[File:Photograph of a Lifeboat Carrying Titanic Survivors - NARA - 278337.jpg|thumb|right|Lifeboat 6 under capacity]]
At 00:45, lifeboat No. 7 was rowed away from ''Titanic'' with 28&nbsp;passengers on board, despite a capacity of 65. Lifeboat No. 6, on the port side, was the next to be lowered at 00:55. It also had 28&nbsp;people on board, among them the "unsinkable" [[Margaret Brown|Margaret "Molly" Brown]]. Lightoller realised there was only one seaman on board (Quartermaster Robert Hichens) and called for volunteers. Major [[Arthur Godfrey Peuchen]] of the [[Royal Canadian Yacht Club]] stepped forward and climbed down a rope into the lifeboat; he was the only adult male passenger whom Lightoller allowed to board during the port side evacuation.{{sfn|Lord|1976|p=87}} Peuchen's role highlighted a key problem during the evacuation: there were hardly any seamen to man the boats. Some had been sent below to open gangway doors to allow more passengers to be evacuated, but they never returned. They were presumably trapped and drowned by the rising water below decks.{{sfn|Bartlett|2011|p=150}}
[[File:The Sad Parting - no caption.jpg|thumb|left|upright|''"The Sad Parting"'', illustration of 1912|alt=Illustration of a weeping woman being comforted by a man on the sloping deck of a ship. In the background men are loading other women into a lifeboat.]]
Meanwhile, other crewmen fought to maintain vital services as water continued to pour into the ship below decks. The engineers and firemen worked to vent steam from the boilers to prevent them from exploding on contact with the cold water. They re-opened watertight doors in order to set up extra portable pumps in the forward compartments in a futile bid to reduce the torrent, and kept the electrical generators running to maintain lights and power throughout the ship. Steward F. Dent Ray narrowly avoided being swept away when a wooden wall between his quarters and the third-class accommodation on E deck collapsed, leaving him waist-deep in water.{{sfn|Lord|1976|p=78}} Two engineers, Herbert Harvey and Jonathan Shepherd (who had just broken his left leg after falling into a manhole minutes earlier), died in boiler room No.&nbsp;5 when, at around 00:45, the bunker door separating it from the flooded No.&nbsp;6 boiler room collapsed and they were swept away by "a wave of green foam" according to leading fireman Frederick Barrett, who barely escaped from the boiler room.{{sfn|Halpern|Weeks|2011|p=126}}
 
In boiler room No.&nbsp;4, at around 01:20, water began flooding in from below, possibly indicating that the bottom of the ship had also been holed by the iceberg. The flow of water soon overwhelmed the pumps and forced the firemen and trimmers to evacuate the forward boiler rooms.{{sfn|Lord|1976|p=76}} Further [[aft]], Chief Engineer Bell, his engineering colleagues, and a handful of volunteer firemen and greasers stayed behind in the unflooded No.&nbsp;1, 2 and 3 boiler rooms and in the turbine and reciprocating engine rooms. They continued working on the boilers and the electrical generators in order to keep the ship's lights and pumps operable and to power the radio so that distress signals could be sent.{{sfn|Ballard|1987|p=25}} According to legend, they remained at their posts until the very end, thus ensuring that ''Titanic''{{'}}s electrics functioned until the final minutes of the sinking, and died in the bowels of the ship. According to Greaser Frederick Scott at the British inquiry, when it became obvious that nothing more could be done, and the flooding was too severe for the pumps to cope, they came up onto ''Titanic''{{'}}s open well deck, but by this time all the lifeboats had left. Scott testified to seeing the engineers gathered at the aft end of the starboard Boat Deck.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.titanicinquiry.org/BOTInq/BOTInq06Scott02.php |title=Day 6 - Testimony of Frederick Scott (Greaser, SS Titanic) |work=British Wreck Commissioner's Inquiry |date=10 May 1912 |accessdate=9 April 2020}}</ref> None of the ship's 35 engineers and electricians survived.{{sfn|Butler|1998|p=226}} Neither did any of the ''Titanic''{{'}}s five postal clerks, who were last seen struggling to save the mail bags they had rescued from the flooded mail room. They were caught by the rising water somewhere on D deck.{{sfn|Butler|1998|p=225}}
 
Many of the third-class passengers were also confronted with the sight of water pouring into their quarters on E, F and G decks. Carl Jansson, one of the relatively small number of third-class survivors, later recalled:
 
<blockquote>
Then I run down to my cabin to bring my other clothes, watch and bag but only had time to take the watch and coat when water with enormous force came into the cabin and I had to rush up to the deck again where I found my friends standing with lifebelts on and with terror painted on their faces. What should I do now, with no lifebelt and no shoes and no cap?{{sfn|Gleicher|2006|p=40}}
</blockquote>
 
The lifeboats were lowered every few minutes on each side, but most of the boats were greatly under-filled. No.&nbsp;5 left with 41 aboard, No.&nbsp;3 had 32 aboard, No.&nbsp;8 left with 39{{sfn|Ballard|1987|p=24}} and No.&nbsp;1 left with just 12 out of a capacity of 40.{{sfn|Ballard|1987|p=24}} The evacuation did not go smoothly and passengers suffered accidents and injuries as it progressed. One woman fell between lifeboat No.&nbsp;10 and the side of the ship but someone caught her by the ankle and hauled her back onto the promenade deck, where she made a second successful attempt at boarding.{{sfn|Lord|1976|p=90}} First-class passenger Annie Stengel broke several ribs when an overweight German-American doctor and his brother jumped into No.&nbsp;5, squashing her and knocking her unconscious.{{sfn|Bartlett|2011|p=147}}{{sfn|Eaton|Haas|1994|p=150}} The lifeboats' descent was likewise risky. No.&nbsp;6 was nearly flooded during the descent by water discharging out of the ship's side, but successfully made it away from the ship.{{sfn|Ballard|1987|p=24}}{{sfn|Bartlett|2011|p=145}} No.&nbsp;3 came close to disaster when, for a time, one of the davits jammed, threatening to pitch the passengers out of the lifeboat and into the sea.{{sfn|Bartlett|2011|p=152}}
 
{{listen |filename=RMS Titanic distress signal simulated as morse code.wav |title=Distress signal |description=Simulated RMS ''Titanic'' distress signal, in Morse code. "SOS SOS CQD CQD – MGY WE ARE SINKING FAST PASSENGERS BEING PUT INTO BOATS MGY"}}
By 01:20, the seriousness of the situation was now apparent to the passengers above decks, who began saying their goodbyes, with husbands escorting their wives and children to the lifeboats. [[Distress rocket|Distress flares]] were fired every few minutes to attract the attention of any ships nearby and the radio operators repeatedly sent the [[distress signal]] [[CQD]]. Radio operator [[Harold Bride]] suggested to his colleague Jack Phillips that he should use the new [[SOS]] signal, as it "may be your last chance to send it". The two radio operators contacted other ships to ask for assistance. Several responded, of which {{RMS|Carpathia}} was the closest, at {{convert|58|mi}} away.{{sfn|Butler|1998|p=98}} She was a much slower vessel than ''Titanic'' and, even driven at her maximum speed of {{convert|17|kn|mph km/h|lk=in|abbr=on}}, would have taken four hours to reach the sinking ship.{{sfn|Butler|1998|p=113}} Another to respond was SS ''Mount Temple'', which set a course and headed for ''Titanic''{{'s}} position but was stopped en route by pack ice.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.titanicinquiry.org/USInq/AmInq09Moore01.php|title=Testimony of Henry James Moore at the US Inquiry|publisher=|accessdate=1 May 2017}}</ref>
 
Much nearer was {{SS|Californian}}, which had warned ''Titanic'' of ice a few hours earlier. Apprehensive at his ship being caught in a large field of drift ice, ''Californian''{{'}}s captain, [[Stanley Lord]], had decided at about 22:00 to halt for the night and wait for daylight to find a way through the ice field.{{sfn|Butler|1998|p=159}} At 23:30, 10&nbsp;minutes before ''Titanic'' hit the iceberg, ''Californian''{{'}}s sole radio operator, [[Cyril Furmstone Evans|Cyril Evans]], shut his set down for the night and went to bed.{{sfn|Butler|1998|p=161}} On the bridge her Third Officer, Charles Groves, saw a large vessel to starboard around {{convert|10|to|12|mi|abbr=on}} away. It made a sudden turn to port and stopped. If the radio operator of ''Californian'' had stayed at his post fifteen minutes longer, hundreds of lives might have been saved.{{sfn|Butler|1998|p=160}} A little over an hour later, Second Officer Herbert Stone saw five white rockets exploding above the stopped ship. Unsure what the rockets meant, he called Captain Lord, who was resting in the chartroom, and reported the sighting.{{sfn|Butler|1998|p=162}} Lord did not act on the report, but Stone was perturbed: "A ship is not going to fire rockets at sea for nothing," he told a colleague.{{sfn|Butler|1998|p=163}}
 
[[File:Titanic signal.jpg|thumb|300px|left|Distress signal sent at about 01:40 by ''Titanic''{{'}}s radio operator, Jack Phillips, to the [[Russian American Line]] ship SS ''Birma''. This was one of ''Titanic''{{'}}s last intelligible radio messages.|alt=Image of a distress signal reading: "SOS SOS CQD CQD. MGY [Titanic]. We are sinking fast passengers being put into boats. MGY"]]
 
By this time, it was clear to those on ''Titanic'' that the ship was indeed sinking and there would not be enough lifeboat places for everyone. Some still clung to the hope that the worst would not happen: Lucien Smith told his wife Eloise, "It is only a matter of form to have women and children first. The ship is thoroughly equipped and everyone on her will be saved."{{sfn|Lord|1976|p=84}} Charlotte Collyer's husband Harvey called to his wife as she was put in a lifeboat, "Go, Lottie! For God's sake, be brave and go! I'll get a seat in another boat!"{{sfn|Lord|1976|p=84}}
 
Other couples refused to be separated. [[Ida Straus]], the wife of [[Macy's]] [[department store]] co-owner and former member of the [[United States House of Representatives]] [[Isidor Straus]], told her husband: "We have been living together for many years. Where you go, I go."{{sfn|Lord|1976|p=84}} They sat down in a pair of deck chairs and waited for the end.{{sfn|Lord|1976|p=85}} The industrialist [[Benjamin Guggenheim]] changed out of his life vest and sweater into top hat and evening dress and declared his wish to go down with the ship like a gentleman.{{sfn|Ballard|1987|p=25}}
 
At this point, the vast majority of passengers who had boarded lifeboats were from first- and second-class. Few third-class (steerage) passengers had made it up onto the deck, and most were still lost in the maze of corridors or trapped behind gates and partitions that segregated the accommodation for the steerage passengers from the first- and second-class areas.{{sfn|Barczewski|2006|p=284}} This segregation was not simply for social reasons, but was a requirement of United States immigration laws, which mandated that third-class passengers be segregated to control immigration and to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. First- and second-class passengers on transatlantic liners disembarked at the main piers on [[Manhattan Island]], but steerage passengers had to go through health checks and processing at [[Ellis Island]].{{sfn|Howells|1999|p=96}} In at least some places, ''Titanic''{{'}}s crew appear to have actively hindered the steerage passengers' escape. Some of the gates were locked and guarded by crew members, apparently to prevent the steerage passengers from rushing the lifeboats.{{sfn|Barczewski|2006|p=284}} Irish survivor Margaret Murphy wrote in May 1912:
 
<blockquote>
Before all the steerage passengers had even a chance of their lives, the ''Titanic''{{'}}s sailors fastened the doors and companionways leading up from the third-class section&nbsp;... A crowd of men was trying to get up to a higher deck and were fighting the sailors; all striking and scuffling and swearing. Women and some children were there praying and crying. Then the sailors fastened down the hatchways leading to the third-class section. They said they wanted to keep the air down there so the vessel could stay up longer. It meant all hope was gone for those still down there.{{sfn|Barczewski|2006|p=284}}
</blockquote>
 
A long and winding route had to be taken to reach topside; the steerage-class accommodation, located on C through G decks, was at the extreme ends of the decks, and so was the farthest away from the lifeboats. By contrast, the first-class accommodation was located on the upper decks and so was nearest. Proximity to the lifeboats thus became a key factor in determining who got into them. To add to the difficulty, many of the steerage passengers did not understand or speak English. It was perhaps no coincidence that English-speaking Irish immigrants were disproportionately represented among the steerage passengers who survived.{{sfn|Howells|1999|p=95}} Many of those who did survive owed their lives to third-class steward John Edward Hart, who organised three trips into the ship's interior to escort groups of third-class passengers up to the boat deck. Others made their way through open gates or climbed emergency ladders.{{sfn|Lord|1976|pp=91–95}}
 
Some, perhaps overwhelmed by it all, made no attempt to escape and stayed in their cabins or congregated in prayer in the third-class dining room.{{sfn|Lord|1976|p=97}} Leading Fireman Charles Hendrickson saw crowds of third-class passengers below decks with their trunks and possessions, as if waiting for someone to direct them.{{sfn|Bartlett|2011|p=131}} Psychologist Wynn Craig Wade attributes this to "stoic passivity" produced by generations of being told what to do by social superiors.{{sfn|Butler|1998|p=225}} August Wennerström, one of the male steerage passengers to survive, commented later that many of his companions had made no effort to save themselves. He wrote:
 
<blockquote>
Hundreds were in a circle [in the third-class dining saloon] with a preacher in the middle, praying, crying, asking God and Mary to help them. They lay there and yelled, never lifting a hand to help themselves. They had lost their own will power and expected God to do all the work for them.{{sfn|Gittins|Akers-Jordan|Behe|2011|p=167}}
</blockquote>-->
 
==== เรือชูชีพลำสุดท้าย ====
<!--[[File:Leaving the sinking liner.jpg|right|thumb|upright|Lifeboat No. 15 was nearly lowered onto lifeboat No. 13 (depicted by [[Charles Dixon (artist)|Charles Dixon]]).|alt=Painting of lifeboats being lowered down the side of Titanic, with one lifeboat about to be lowered on top of another one in the water. A third lifeboat is visible in the background.]]
By 01:30, ''Titanic''{{'}}s downward angle in the water was increasing and the ship was now listing slightly more to port, but not more than 5 degrees. The deteriorating situation was reflected in the tone of the messages sent from the ship: "We are putting the women off in the boats" at 01:25, "Engine room getting flooded" at 01:35, and at 01:45, "Engine room full up to boilers."{{sfn|Ballard|1987|p=26}} This was ''Titanic''{{'}}s last intelligible signal, sent as the ship's electrical system began to fail; subsequent messages were jumbled and broken. The two radio operators nonetheless continued sending out distress messages almost to the very end.{{sfn|Regal|2005|p=34}}
 
The remaining boats were filled much closer to capacity and in an increasing rush. No.&nbsp;11 was filled with five people more than its rated capacity. As it was lowered, it was nearly flooded by water being pumped out of the ship. No.&nbsp;13 narrowly avoided the same problem but those aboard were unable to release the ropes from which the boat had been lowered. It drifted astern, directly under No.&nbsp;15 as it was being lowered. The ropes were cut in time and both boats made it away safely.{{sfn|Eaton|Haas|1994|p=153}}
[[File:Reuterdahl - Sinking of the Titanic.jpg|thumb|left|''"Sinking of the Titanic"'' by [[Henry Reuterdahl]]|alt=Painting of a sinking ship with a lifeboat being rowed away from it in the foreground.]]
The first signs of panic were seen when a group of passengers attempted to rush port-side lifeboat No.&nbsp;14 as it was being lowered with 40&nbsp;people aboard. [[Harold Lowe|Fifth Officer Lowe]], who was in charge of the boat, fired three warning shots in the air to control the crowd without causing injuries.{{sfn|Eaton|Haas|1994|p=154}} No.&nbsp;16 was lowered five minutes later. Among those aboard was stewardess [[Violet Jessop]], who would repeat the experience four years later when she survived the sinking of one of ''Titanic''{{'}}s sister ships, {{HMHS|Britannic||2}}, in the First World War.{{sfn|Eaton|Haas|1994|p=155}} Collapsible boat C was launched at 01:40 from a now largely deserted area of the deck, as most of those on deck had moved to the [[stern]] of the ship. It was aboard this boat that White Star chairman and managing director [[J. Bruce Ismay]], ''Titanic''{{'}}s most controversial survivor, made his escape from the ship, an act later condemned as cowardice.{{sfn|Ballard|1987|p=26}}
 
At 01:45 AM, lifeboat No.&nbsp;2 was lowered.{{sfn|Ballard|1987|p=222}} While it was still at deck level, Lightoller had found the boat occupied by men who, he wrote later, "weren't British, nor of the English-speaking race&nbsp;... [but of] the broad category known to sailors as '[[Ethnic slur#D|dagoes]]'."{{sfn|Winocour|1960|p=296}} After he evicted them by threatening them with his revolver, he was unable to find enough women and children to fill the boat{{sfn|Winocour|1960|p=296}} and lowered it with only 25 people on board out of a possible capacity of 40.{{sfn|Ballard|1987|p=222}} John Jacob Astor saw his wife off to safety in No.&nbsp;4 boat at 01:55 but was refused entry by Lightoller, even though 20 of the 60&nbsp;seats aboard were unoccupied.{{sfn|Ballard|1987|p=222}}
 
The last boat to be launched was collapsible D, which left at 02:05 with 25&nbsp;people aboard;<ref name="bright">{{cite web|url=http://www.titanicinquiry.org/USInq/AmInq09Bright01.php|title=Testimony of Arthur Bright|publisher=|accessdate=6 October 2014}}</ref> two more men jumped on the boat as it was being lowered.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.titanicinquiry.org/USInq/AmInq10Woolner01.php|title=Testimony of Hugh Woolner|publisher=|accessdate=6 October 2014}}</ref> The sea had reached the boat deck and the forecastle was deep underwater. First-class passenger Edith Evans gave up her place in the boat, and ultimately died in the disaster. She was one of only four women in first class to perish in the sinking. At least two passengers, Third Class Passenger Eugene Daly and First Class passenger George Rheims, claimed to have seen an officer shoot one or two men and commit suicide by shooting himself. On the rescue ship Carpathia, coming into New York Harbor, rumors were circulating from a number of survivors that a shooting incident had happened in the last minutes of the sinking. It became widely rumored that Murdoch was that officer.{{sfn|Fitch|Layton|Wormstedt|2012|pp=305–308}} Captain Smith carried out a final tour of the deck, telling the radio operators and other crew members: "Now it's every man for himself."{{sfn|Butler|1998|p=130}} He then gave orders to men attempting to launch Collapsible Lifeboat A before walking onto the bridge just before the ship began its final plunge.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.titanicinquiry.org/BOTInq/BOTInq09Brown01.php |title=Day 9 - Testimony of Edward Brown (First Class Steward, SS Titanic) |work=British Wreck Commissioner's Inquiry |date=16 May 1912 |accessdate=6 June 2015}}</ref> He may have died there{{sfn|Bartlett|2011|p=224}}{{sfn|Ballard|1987|pp=40–41}} or jumped into the water just before the bridge was submerged and subsequently perished in the water, possibly near Collapsible B.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.titanicinquiry.org/USInq/AmInq14Bride01.php|title=Testimony of Harold Bride at the US Inquiry|publisher=|accessdate=6 October 2014}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://wormstedt.com/Titanic/shots/secondno.html|title=Shots in the dark|publisher=|accessdate=6 October 2014}}</ref> The ship's designer, Thomas Andrews, was reportedly last seen in the first-class smoking room, having removed his lifebelt.{{sfn|Eaton|Haas|1994|p=155}}{{sfn|Chirnside|2004|p=177}} There is circumstantial evidence to show that the sighting of Andrews in the smoking room must have taken place prior to 1:40&nbsp;a.m., that Andrews stayed in the smoking room for some time, then continued assisting with the evacuation.<ref name="seaofglass">{{harvnb|Fitch|Layton|Wormstedt|2012|pp=321–323}}</ref> At around 2:00&nbsp;a.m., he was seen back on the boat deck. The crowd had begun to stir, but some women remained reluctant to leave the ship. To be heard and to draw attention to himself, Andrews waved his arms and called to them in a loud voice.<ref name=Chap8/> Another reported sighting of Andrews, that was told to David Galloway, a friend of Thomas Andrews, who relayed the information to Lord Pirrie, Andrews’ uncle, throwing deck chairs into the ocean for passengers to cling to in the water.<ref name="seaofglass" /> Andrews was reportedly seen, carrying a lifebelt, possibly the same lifebelt that lying on the table in the smoking room, and on his way to the bridge, perhaps in search of Captain Smith.<ref name=Chap8>{{cite book|chapter-url=http://www.libraryireland.com/Thomas-Andrews-Shipbuilder/Sinking-Titanic.php |chapter=VIII: The sinking of the Titanic|title=Thomas Andrews Shipbuilder|year=1912|first=Shan|last=Bullock|access-date=21 April 2011}}</ref> In two newspaper accounts, and apparently a statement to Galloway, mess steward Cecil William N Fitzpatrick claimed to have seen Andrews and Captain Smith together on the bridge just a few minutes before the ship began its final plunge, and that both men jumped overboard just before the bridge was submerged.<ref name="seaofglass" />
 
As passengers and crew headed to the stern, where Father [[Thomas Byles]] was hearing confessions and giving absolutions, ''Titanic''{{'}}s band played outside the gymnasium.{{sfn|Butler|1998|p=135}} ''Titanic'' had two separate bands of musicians. One was a quintet led by [[Wallace Hartley]] that played after dinner and at religious services while the other was a trio who played in the reception area and outside the café and restaurant. The two bands had separate music libraries and arrangements and had not played together before the sinking. Around 30 minutes after colliding with the iceberg, the two bands were called by Captain Smith who ordered them to play in the first class lounge. Passengers present remember them playing lively tunes such as "[[Alexander's Ragtime Band]]". It is unknown if the two piano players were with the band at this time. The exact time is unknown, but the musicians later moved to the boat deck level where they played before moving outside onto the deck itself.<ref name=Steph>{{cite book|last1=Barczewski|first1=Stephanie|title=Titanic: A Night Remembered|date=2006|publisher=[[A&C Black]]|isbn=9781852855000|pages=[https://archive.org/details/titanicnightreme0000barc/page/132 132–33]}}</ref>
[[File:Nearer My God To Thee Titanic - no caption.png|thumb|''"Nearer, My God, To Thee"''&nbsp;– cartoon of 1912|alt=Cartoon depicting a man standing with a woman, who is hiding her head on his shoulder, on the deck of a ship awash with water. A beam of light is shown coming down from heaven to illuminate the couple. Behind them is an empty davit.]]
Part of the enduring folklore of the ''Titanic'' sinking is that the musicians played the hymn "[[Nearer, My God, to Thee]]" as the ship sank, but this appears to be dubious.{{sfn|Howells|1999|p=128}} The claim surfaced among the earliest reports of the sinking,{{sfn|Howells|1999|p=129}} and the hymn became so closely associated with the ''Titanic'' disaster that its opening bars were carved on the grave monument of ''Titanic''{{'}}s bandmaster, Wallace Hartley, one of those who perished.{{sfn|Richards|2001|p=395}} Violet Jessop said in her 1934 account of the disaster that she had heard the hymn being played.{{sfn|Howells|1999|p=128}} In contrast, Archibald Gracie emphatically denied it in his own account, written soon after the sinking, and Radio Operator Harold Bride said that he had heard the band playing ragtime, then "Autumn",{{sfn|Richards|2001|p=396}} by which he may have meant [[Archibald Joyce]]'s then-popular waltz "Songe d'Automne" (Autumn Dream). George Orrell, the bandmaster of the rescue ship, ''Carpathia'', who spoke with survivors, related: "The ship's band in any emergency is expected to play to calm the passengers. After ''Titanic'' struck the iceberg the band began to play bright music, dance music, comic songs&nbsp;– anything that would prevent the passengers from becoming panic-stricken&nbsp;... various awe-stricken passengers began to think of the death that faced them and asked the bandmaster to play hymns. The one which appealed to all was 'Nearer My God to Thee'."{{sfn|Turner|2011|p=194}} According to Gracie, who was near the band until that section of deck went under, the tunes played by the band were "cheerful" but he didn't recognise any of them, claiming that if they had played 'Nearer, My God, to Thee' as claimed in the newspaper "I assuredly should have noticed it and regarded it as a tactless warning of immediate death to us all and one likely to create panic."{{sfn|Gracie|1913|p=20}} Several survivors who were among the last to leave the ship claimed that the band continued playing until the slope of the deck became too steep for them to stand, Gracie claimed that the band stopped playing at least 30 minutes before the vessel sank. Several witnesses support this account including A. H. Barkworth, a first-class passenger who testified: "I do not wish to detract from the bravery of anybody, but I might mention that when I first came on deck the band was playing a waltz. The next time I passed where the band was stationed, the members had thrown down their instruments and were not to be seen."<ref name="Steph"/>
 
Bride heard the band playing as he left the radio cabin, which was by now awash, in the company of the other radio operator, Jack Phillips. He had just had a fight with a man who Bride thought was "a stoker, or someone from below decks", who had attempted to steal Phillips' lifebelt. Bride wrote later: "I did my duty. I hope I finished [the man]. I don't know. We left him on the cabin floor of the radio room, and he was not moving."{{sfn|Winocour|1960|p=317}} The two radio operators went in opposite directions, Phillips aft and Bride forward towards collapsible lifeboat B.{{sfn|Winocour|1960|p=317}}
 
Archibald Gracie was also heading aft, but as he made his way towards the stern he found his path blocked by "a mass of humanity several lines deep, covering the boat deck, facing us"{{sfn|Winocour|1960|pp=138–39}}&nbsp;– hundreds of steerage passengers, who had finally made it to the deck just as the last lifeboats departed. He gave up on the idea of going aft and jumped into the water to get away from the crowd.{{sfn|Winocour|1960|pp=138–39}} Others made no attempt to escape.
[[File:Titanic the sinking.jpg|thumb|Illustration of the sinking of the ''Titanic'']]-->
 
=== นาทีสุดท้ายก่อนอับปาง ===
<!--At about 02:15, ''Titanic''{{'}}s angle in the water began to increase rapidly as water poured into previously unflooded parts of the ship through deck hatches.{{sfn|Barratt|2010|p=131}} Her suddenly increasing angle caused what one survivor called a "giant wave" to wash along the ship from the forward end of the boat deck, sweeping many people into the sea.{{sfn|Lynch|1998|p=117}} The parties who were trying to lower collapsible boats A and B, including Chief Officer Henry Wilde, First Officer Murdoch, Second Officer Charles Lightoller, Sixth Officer Moody,<ref>[http://www.titanicinquiry.org/USInq/AmInq07Hemming01.php Testimony of Samuel Hemming] at Titanic inquiry.com</ref> and Colonel Archibald Gracie, were swept away along with the two boats (boat B floated away upside-down with Harold Bride trapped underneath it, and boat A ended up partly flooded and with its canvas not raised). Bride, Gracie and Lightoller made it onto boat B, but Wilde, Murdoch and Moody perished.{{sfn|Gracie|1913|p=61}}{{sfn|Winocour|1960|p=316}}
 
Lightoller opted to abandon his post to escape the growing crowds, and dived into the water from the roof of the officers' quarters. He was sucked into the mouth of a ventilation shaft but was blown clear by "a terrific blast of hot air" and emerged next to the capsized lifeboat.{{sfn|Winocour|1960|p=299}} The forward funnel collapsed under its own weight, crushing several people as it fell into the water and only narrowly missing the lifeboat.{{sfn|Barczewski|2006|p=28}} It closely missed Lightoller and created a wave that washed the boat 50 yards clear of the sinking ship.{{sfn|Winocour|1960|p=299}} Those still on ''Titanic'' felt her structure shuddering as it underwent immense stresses. As first-class passenger Jack Thayer{{sfn|Lord|2005|p=166}} described it:
 
<blockquote>
Occasionally there had been a muffled thud or deadened explosion within the ship. Now, without warning she seemed to start forward, moving forward and into the water at an angle of about fifteen degrees. This movement with the water rushing up toward us was accompanied by a rumbling roar, mixed with more muffled explosions. It was like standing under a steel railway bridge while an express train passes overhead mingled with the noise of a pressed steel factory and wholesale breakage of china.{{sfn|Gleicher|2006|p=229}}
</blockquote>
 
Eyewitnesses saw ''Titanic''{{'}}s stern rising high into the air as the ship tilted down in the water. It was said to have reached an angle of 30–45&nbsp;degrees,{{sfn|Ballard|1987|p=202}} "revolving apparently around a centre of gravity just astern of midships", as Lawrence Beesley later put it.{{sfn|Beesley|1960|p=47}} Many survivors described a great noise, which some attributed to the boilers exploding.{{sfn|Mowbray|1912|p=70}} Beesley described it as "partly a groan, partly a rattle, and partly a smash, and it was not a sudden roar as an explosion would be: it went on successively for some seconds, possibly fifteen to twenty". He attributed it to "the engines and machinery coming loose from their bolts and bearings, and falling through the compartments, smashing everything in their way".{{sfn|Beesley|1960|p=47}}
 
After another minute, the ship's lights flickered once and then permanently went out, plunging ''Titanic'' into darkness. Jack Thayer recalled seeing "groups of the fifteen hundred people still aboard, clinging in clusters or bunches, like swarming bees; only to fall in masses, pairs or singly as the great afterpart of the ship, two hundred fifty feet of it, rose into the sky."{{sfn|Barczewski|2006|p=28}}-->
 
==== วาระสุดท้ายของ ''ไททานิก'' ====
<!--[[File:Titanic's sinking stern.jpg|thumb|left|300px|Imagined view of ''Titanic''{{'s}} final plunge]]
''Titanic'' was subjected to extreme opposing forces&nbsp;– the flooded bow pulling her down while the air in the stern kept her to the surface&nbsp;– which were concentrated at one of the weakest points in the structure, the area of the engine room hatch. Shortly after the lights went out, the ship split apart. The submerged bow may have remained attached to the stern by the keel for a short time, pulling the stern to a high angle before separating and leaving the stern to float for a few moments longer. The forward part of the stern would have flooded very rapidly, causing it to tilt and then settle briefly until sinking.{{sfn|Halpern|Weeks|2011|p=119}}{{sfn|Barczewski|2006|p=29}}<ref>{{cite web|url=https://video.nationalgeographic.com/tv/00000144-2f3a-df5d-abd4-ff7f31f90000|title=Titanic Sinking CGI|publisher=National Geographic Channel|accessdate=17 February 2016}}</ref> The ship disappeared from view at 02:20, 2 hours and 40 minutes after striking the iceberg. Thayer reported that it rotated on the surface, "gradually [turning] her deck away from us, as though to hide from our sight the awful spectacle&nbsp;... Then, with the deadened noise of the bursting of her last few gallant bulkheads, she slid quietly away from us into the sea."{{sfn|Ballard|1987|p=29}}
 
''Titanic''{{'}}s surviving officers and some prominent survivors testified that the ship had sunk in one piece, a belief that was affirmed by the British and American inquiries into the disaster. Archibald Gracie, who was on the promenade deck with the band (by the second funnel), stated that "''Titanic''{{'}}s decks were intact at the time she sank, and when I sank with her, there was over seven-sixteenths of the ship already under water, and there was no indication then of any impending break of the deck or ship".{{sfn|Gracie|1913|p=58}} Ballard argued that many other survivors' accounts indicated that the ship had broken in two as she was sinking.{{sfn|Ballard|1987|p=201}} As the engines are now known to have stayed in place along with most of the boilers, the "great noise" heard by witnesses and the momentary settling of the stern were presumably caused by the break-up of the ship rather than the loosening of her fittings or boiler explosions.{{sfn|Kuntz|1998|p=xiii}}
 
After they went under, the bow and stern took only about 5–6 minutes to sink {{convert|3795|m|ft}}, spilling a trail of heavy machinery, tons of coal and large quantities of debris from ''Titanic''{{'}}s interior. The two parts of the ship landed about {{convert|600|m|ft}} apart on a gently [[wikt:undulate|undulating]] area of the seabed.{{sfn|Uchupi|Ballard|Lange|1986}} The streamlined bow section continued to descend at about the angle it had taken on the surface, striking the seabed prow-first at a shallow angle{{sfn|Ballard|1987|p=206}} at an estimated speed of {{convert|25|–|30|mph|km/h|abbr=on}}. Its momentum caused it to dig a deep gouge into the seabed and buried the section up to {{convert|20|m|ft}} deep in sediment before it came to an abrupt halt. The sudden deceleration caused the bow's structure to buckle downwards by several degrees just forward of the bridge. The decks at the rear end of the bow section, which had already been weakened during the break-up, collapsed one atop another.{{sfn|Ballard|1987|p=205}}
 
The stern section seems to have descended almost vertically, probably rotating as it fell.{{sfn|Ballard|1987|p=206}} Empty tanks and [[cofferdam]]s imploded as it descended, tearing open the structure and folding back the steel ribbing of the [[poop deck]].{{sfn|Butler|1998|p=140}} The section landed with such force that it buried itself about {{convert|15|m}} deep at the rudder. The decks pancaked down on top of each other and the hull plating splayed out to the sides. Debris continued to rain down across the seabed for several hours after the sinking.{{sfn|Ballard|1987|p=205}}-->
 
=== ผู้โดยสารและลูกเรือในน้ำ ===
<!--[[File:Titanic watch.jpg|thumb|Pocket watch retrieved from the wreck site, stopped showing a time of 2:28|alt=Photograph of a brass pocket watch on a stand, with a silver chain curled around the base. The watch's hands read 2:28.]]
 
In the immediate aftermath of the sinking, hundreds of passengers and crew were left dying in the icy sea, surrounded by debris from the ship. ''Titanic''{{'}}s disintegration during her descent to the seabed caused buoyant chunks of debris&nbsp;– timber beams, wooden doors, furniture, panelling and chunks of cork from the bulkheads&nbsp;– to rocket to the surface. These injured and possibly killed some of the swimmers; others used the debris to try to keep themselves afloat.{{sfn|Butler|1998|p=139}}
 
With a temperature of {{convert|28|°F}}, the water was lethally cold. Second Officer Lightoller described the feeling of "a thousand knives" being driven into his body as he entered the sea.{{sfn|Butler|1998|p=140}} Sudden immersion into freezing water typically causes death within minutes, either from [[cardiac arrest]], uncontrollable breathing of water, or [[cold incapacitation]] (not, as commonly believed, from [[hypothermia]]);<ref>[https://web.archive.org/web/20160103002218/https://www.timeshighereducation.com/news/findings-titanic-victims-in-cold-shock/169325.article Findings: Titanic victims in 'cold shock'], quoting Michael Tipton</ref> almost all of those in the water died of cardiac arrest or other bodily reactions to freezing water within 15–30 minutes.{{sfn|Aldridge|2008|p=56}} Only 13 of them were helped into the lifeboats even though these had room for almost 500 more people.{{sfn|Lord|2005|p=103}}
 
Those in the lifeboats were horrified to hear the sound of what Lawrence Beesley called "every possible emotion of human fear, despair, agony, fierce resentment and blind anger mingled&nbsp;– I am certain of those&nbsp;– with notes of infinite surprise, as though each one were saying, 'How is it possible that this awful thing is happening to ''me''? That I should be caught in this death trap?{{'"}}{{sfn|Barratt|2010|pp=199–200}} [[Jack Thayer]] compared it to the sound of "locusts on a summer night", while George Rheims, who jumped moments before ''Titanic'' sank, described it as "a dismal moaning sound which I won't ever forget; it came from those poor people who were floating around, calling for help. It was horrifying, mysterious, supernatural."{{sfn|Barratt|2010|p=177}}
 
The noise of the people in the water screaming, yelling, and crying was a tremendous shock to the occupants of the lifeboats, many of whom had up to that moment believed that everyone had escaped before the ship sank. As Beesley later wrote, the cries "came as a thunderbolt, unexpected, inconceivable, incredible. No one in any of the boats standing off a few hundred yards away can have escaped the paralysing shock of knowing that so short a distance away a tragedy, unbelievable in its magnitude, was being enacted, which we, helpless, could in no way avert or diminish."{{sfn|Barratt|2010|pp=199–200}}
 
[[File:Archibald Gracie IV.jpg|thumb|upright|[[Archibald Gracie IV|Colonel Archibald Gracie]], one of the survivors who made it to collapsible lifeboat B. He never recovered from his ordeal and died eight months after the sinking.|alt=Photograph of a moustached middle-aged man in a dark suit and waistcoat, sitting in a chair while looking at the camera]]
Only a few of those in the water survived. Among them were Archibald Gracie, Jack Thayer and Charles Lightoller, who made it to the capsized collapsible boat B. Around 12 crew members climbed on board Collapsible B, and they rescued those they could until some 35 men were clinging precariously to the upturned hull. Realising the risk to the boat of being swamped by the mass of swimmers around them, they paddled slowly away, ignoring the pleas of dozens of swimmers to be allowed on board. In his account, Gracie wrote of the admiration he had for those in the water; "In no instance, I am happy to say, did I hear any word of rebuke from a swimmer because of a refusal to grant assistance... [one refusal] was met with the manly voice of a powerful man... 'All right boys, good luck and God bless you'."{{sfn|Gracie|1913|p=89}} Several other swimmers (probably 20 or more) reached Collapsible boat A, which was upright but partly flooded, as its sides had not been properly raised. Its occupants had to sit for hours in a foot of freezing water,{{sfn|Bartlett|2011|p=224}} and many died of hypothermia during the night.
 
Farther out, the other eighteen lifeboats&nbsp;– most of which had empty seats&nbsp;– drifted as the occupants debated what, if anything, they should do to rescue the swimmers. Boat No.&nbsp;4, having remained near the sinking ship, seems to have been closest to the site of the sinking at around {{convert|50|m}} away; this had enabled two people to drop into the boat and another to be picked up from the water before the ship sank.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.titanicinquiry.org/BOTInq/BOTInq05Ranger01.php|title=Testimony of Thomas Ranger|publisher=|accessdate=6 October 2014}}</ref> After the sinking, seven more men were pulled from the water, although two later died. Collapsible D rescued one male passenger who jumped in the water and swam over to the boat immediately after it had been lowered. In all the other boats, the occupants eventually decided against returning, probably out of fear that they would be capsized in the attempt. Some put their objections bluntly; Quartermaster Hichens, commanding lifeboat No.&nbsp;6, told the women aboard his boat that there was no point returning as there were "only a lot of stiffs there".{{sfn|Bartlett|2011|pp=226–67}}
 
After about twenty minutes, the cries began to fade as the swimmers lapsed into unconsciousness and death.{{sfn|Bartlett|2011|p=228}} Fifth Officer Lowe, in charge of lifeboat No.&nbsp;14, "waited until the yells and shrieks had subsided for the people to thin out" before mounting an attempt to rescue those in the water.{{sfn|Bartlett|2011|p=230}} He gathered together five of the lifeboats and transferred the occupants between them to free up space in No.&nbsp;14. Lowe then took a crew of seven crewmen and one male passenger who volunteered to help, and then rowed back to the site of the sinking. The whole operation took about three-quarters of an hour. By the time No.&nbsp;14 headed back to the site of the sinking, almost all of those in the water were dead and only a few voices could still be heard.{{sfn|Butler|1998|pp=144–45}}
 
[[Lucy, Lady Duff-Gordon]], recalled after the disaster that "the very last cry was that of a man who had been calling loudly: 'My God! My God!' He cried monotonously, in a dull, hopeless way. For an entire hour there had been an awful chorus of shrieks, gradually dying into a hopeless moan, until this last cry that I speak of. Then all was silent."{{sfn|Everett|1912|p=167}} Lowe and his crew found four men still alive, one of whom died shortly afterwards. Otherwise, all they could see were "hundreds of bodies and lifebelts"; the dead "seemed as if they had perished with the cold as their limbs were all cramped up".{{sfn|Bartlett|2011|p=230}}
 
In the other boats, there was nothing the survivors could do but await the arrival of rescue ships. The air was bitterly cold and several of the boats had taken on water. The survivors could not find any [[Emergency rations|food or drinkable water]] in the boats, and most had no lights.{{sfn|Bartlett|2011|p=232}} The situation was particularly bad aboard collapsible B, which was only kept afloat by a diminishing air pocket in the upturned hull. As dawn approached, the wind rose and the sea became increasingly choppy, forcing those on the collapsible boat to stand up to balance it. Some, exhausted by the ordeal, fell off into the sea and were drowned.{{sfn|Bartlett|2011|p=231}} It became steadily more difficult for the rest to keep their balance on the hull, with waves washing across it.{{sfn|Bartlett|2011|p=238}} Archibald Gracie later wrote of how he and the other survivors sitting on the upturned hull were struck by "the utter helplessness of our position".{{sfn|Gracie|1913|p=161}}-->
 
=== การช่วยชีวิตและการออกเดินทาง ===
<!--[[File:Titanic lifeboat.jpg|thumb|Collapsible lifeboat D photographed from the deck of ''Carpathia'' on the morning of 15 April 1912.|alt=Photograph of a lifeboat, filled with people wearing life jackets, being rowed towards the camera.]]
 
''Titanic''{{'}}s survivors were rescued around 04:00 on 15 April by the {{RMS|Carpathia}}, which had steamed through the night at high speed and at considerable risk, as the ship had to dodge numerous icebergs en route.{{sfn|Bartlett|2011|p=238}} ''Carpathia''{{'}}s lights were first spotted around 03:30,{{sfn|Bartlett|2011|p=238}} which greatly cheered the survivors, though it took several more hours for everyone to be brought aboard. The 30 or more men on collapsible B finally managed to board two other lifeboats, but one survivor died just before the transfer was made.{{sfn|Bartlett|2011|pp=240–41}} Collapsible A was also in trouble and was now nearly awash; many of those aboard (maybe more than half) had died overnight.{{sfn|Butler|1998|p=140}} The remaining survivors&nbsp;– an unknown number of men, estimated to be between 10–11 and more than 20, and one woman&nbsp;– were transferred from A into another lifeboat, leaving behind three bodies in the boat, which was left to drift away. It was recovered a month later by the White Star liner {{RMS|Oceanic|1899|6}} with the bodies still aboard.{{sfn|Bartlett|2011|pp=240–41}}
 
Those on ''Carpathia'' were startled by the scene that greeted them as the sun rose: "fields of ice on which, like points on the landscape, rested innumerable pyramids of ice."{{sfn|Bartlett|2011|p=242}} Captain [[Arthur Rostron]] of ''Carpathia'' saw ice all around, including 20&nbsp;large bergs measuring up to {{convert|200|ft|m}} high and numerous smaller bergs, as well as ice floes and debris from ''Titanic''.{{sfn|Bartlett|2011|p=242}} It appeared to ''Carpathia''{{'}}s passengers that their ship was in the middle of a vast white plain of ice, studded with icebergs appearing like hills in the distance.{{sfn|Bartlett|2011|p=245}}
 
As the lifeboats were brought alongside ''Carpathia'', the survivors came aboard the ship by various means. Some were strong enough to climb up rope ladders; others were hoisted up in slings, and the children were hoisted in mail sacks.{{sfn|Butler|1998|p=154}} The last lifeboat to reach the ship was Lightoller's boat No.&nbsp;12, with 74&nbsp;people aboard a boat designed to carry 65. They were all on ''Carpathia'' by 09:00.{{sfn|Butler|1998|p=156}} There were some scenes of joy as families and friends were reunited, but in most cases hopes died as loved ones failed to reappear.{{sfn|Butler|1998|p=155}}
 
At 09:15, two more ships appeared on the scene&nbsp;– {{SS|Mount Temple||2}} and {{SS|Californian||2}}, which had finally learned of the disaster when her radio operator returned to duty&nbsp;– but by then there were no more survivors to rescue. ''Carpathia'' had been bound for Fiume, [[Austria-Hungary]] (now [[Rijeka]], Croatia), but as she had neither the stores nor the medical facilities to cater for the survivors, Rostron ordered that a course be calculated to return the ship to New York, where the survivors could be properly looked after.{{sfn|Butler|1998|p=156}} ''Carpathia'' departed the area, leaving the other ships to carry out a final, fruitless, two-hour search.{{sfn|Butler|1998|p=157}}{{sfn|Bartlett|2011|p=255}}-->
 
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