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ความเกลียดชังผู้หญิงเป็นส่วนสำคัญของความอยุติธรรมทางเพศและอุดมการณ์และเป็นพื้นฐานของการกดขี่ผ้หญิงในสังคมที่ชายเป็นใหญ่ ความเกลียดชังผู้หญิงได้แสดงออกมาได้หลายทาง ตั้งแต่เรื่องตลกจนถึงสื่อลามกจยกระทั่งความรุนแรงและการดูถูกตัวเองที่ผู้หญิงรู้สึกกับร่างการของพวกเธอ{{quote|ความเกลียดชังผู้หญิงเป็นส่วนสำคัญของความอยุติธรรมทางเพศและอุดมการณ์และเป็นพื้นฐานของการกดขี่ผ้หญิงในสังคมที่ชายเป็นใหญ่ ความเกลียดชังผู้หญิงได้แสดงออกมาได้หลายทาง ตั้งแต่เรื่องตลกจนถึงสื่อลามก กระทั่งความรุนแรงและการดูถูกตัวเองที่ผู้หญิงรู้สึกกับร่างการของพวกเธอ<ref>{{cite journal | url = https://books.google.com/?id=V1kiW7x6J1MC&pg=PA197&dq=allan+johnson+misogyny#v=onepage&q&f=false | title = The Blackwell dictionary of sociology: A user's guide to sociological language | isbn = 978-0-631-21681-0 | author1 = Johnson | first1 = Allan G | year = 2000 | accessdate = November 21, 2011}}, ("ideology" in all small capitals in original).</ref>}}พจนานุกรมได้อธิบายความหมายของคำว่า misogyny ว่าคือความเกลียดชังผู้หญิง<ref>''The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary on Historical Principles'' (Oxford: Clarendon Press (Oxford Univ. Press), [4th] ed. 1993 ({{ISBN|0-19-861271-0}})) (''SOED'') ("[h]atred of women").</ref><ref>''The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language'' (Boston, Mass.: Houghton Mifflin, 1992 ({{ISBN|0-395-44895-6}})) ("[h]atred of women").</ref><ref>''Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language Unabridged'' (G. & C. Merriam, 1966) ("a hatred of women").</ref> และความเกลียด ไม่ชอบ หรือไม่ไว้ใจผู้หญิง<ref>''Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary'' (N.Y.: Random House, 2d ed. 2001 ({{ISBN|0-375-42566-7}})).</ref>
 
== Historical usage ==
 
=== Classical Greece ===
[[File:Seated_Euripides_Louvre_Ma343.jpg|link=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Seated_Euripides_Louvre_Ma343.jpg|left|thumb|[./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euripides Euripides]]]
In his book ''City of Sokrates: An Introduction to Classical Athens'', J.W. Roberts argues that older than tragedy and comedy was a misogynistic tradition in Greek literature, reaching back at least as far as [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hesiod Hesiod].<ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/?id=73kTsV4FdrQC&pg=PA22&dq=Sokrates+misogyny+misogynist#v=onepage&q&f=false|title=City of Sokrates: An Introduction to Classical Athens|isbn=978-0-203-19479-9|author1=Roberts|first1=J.W|date=2002-06-01}}</ref> The term ''misogyny'' itself comes directly into English from the Ancient Greek word ''misogunia'' ({{lang|grc|μισογυνία}}), which survives in several passages.
 
The earlier, longer, and more complete passage comes from a moral tract known as ''On Marriage'' (''c''. 150 BC) by the [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stoicism stoic] philosopher [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antipater_of_Tarsus Antipater of Tarsus].<ref>The ''[[editio princeps]]'' is on page 255 of volume three of ''[[Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta]]'' (''SVF'', Old Stoic Fragments), see [[Misogyny#External links|External links]].</ref><ref name="Deming">A recent critical text with translation is in [https://books.google.com/books?id=u_6a-sMDv6AC&pg=PA221&lpg=PA221&dq=appendix+a+antipater+of+tarsus&source=web&ots=JlCnsyRBGf&sig=7zsKzMVEBnV3tHag9z7E4cWCeLs&hl=en Appendix A] to Will Deming, ''Paul on Marriage and Celibacy: The Hellenistic Background of 1 Corinthians 7'', pp. 221–226. ''Misogunia'' appears in the [[accusative case]] on page 224 of Deming, as the fifth word in line 33 of his Greek text. It is split over lines 25–26 in von Arnim.</ref> Antipater argues that marriage is the foundation of the state, and considers it to be based on divine ([./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polytheism polytheistic]) decree. He uses ''misogunia'' to describe the sort of writing the tragedian [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euripides Euripides] eschews, stating that he "reject[s] the hatred of women in his writing" (ἀποθέμενος τὴν ἐν τῷ γράφειν μισογυνίαν). He then offers an example of this, quoting from a lost play of Euripides in which the merits of a dutiful wife are praised.<ref name="Deming" /><ref>38-43, fr. 63, in von Arnim, J. (ed.). ''Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta.'' Vol. 3. Leipzig: Teubner, 1903.</ref>
 
The other surviving use of the original Greek word is by [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chrysippus Chrysippus], in a fragment from ''On affections'', quoted by [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galen Galen] in ''[./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hippocrates Hippocrates] on Affections''.<ref>''SVF'' 3:103. ''Misogyny'' is the first word on the page.</ref> Here, ''misogyny'' is the first in a short list of three "disaffections"—women (''misogunia''), wine (''misoinia'', μισοινία) and humanity (''misanthrōpia'', μισανθρωπία). Chrysippus' point is more abstract than Antipater's, and Galen quotes the passage as an example of an opinion contrary to his own. What is clear, however, is that he groups hatred of women with hatred of humanity generally, and even hatred of wine. "It was the prevailing medical opinion of his day that wine strengthens body and soul alike."<ref name="Tieleman">Teun L. Tieleman, ''[https://books.google.com/books?id=BBiw96gj8gkC&printsec=frontcover&dq=chrysippus+on+affections&sig=6f6Y84rR_VZzorWxiGfFMYViuvM Chrysippus' on Affections:] Reconstruction and Interpretations'', (Leiden: [[Brill Publishers]], 2003), p. 162. {{ISBN|90-04-12998-7}}</ref> So Chrysippus, like his fellow stoic Antipater, views misogyny negatively, as a [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disease disease]; a dislike of something that is good. It is this issue of conflicted or alternating emotions that was philosophically contentious to the ancient writers. Ricardo Salles suggests that the general stoic view was that "[a] man may not only alternate between philogyny and misogyny, philanthropy and misanthropy, but be prompted to each by the other."<ref>Ricardo Salles, ''Metaphysics, Soul, and Ethics in Ancient Thought: Themes from the Work of Richard Sorabji'', (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2005), 485.</ref>
 
[./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aristotle Aristotle] has also been accused of being a misogynist; he has written that women were inferior to men. According to Cynthia Freeland (1994):{{quote|Aristotle says that the courage of a man lies in commanding, a woman's lies in obeying; that 'matter yearns for form, as the female for the male and the ugly for the beautiful'; that women have fewer teeth than men; that a female is an incomplete male or 'as it were, a deformity': which contributes only matter and not form to the generation of offspring; that in general 'a woman is perhaps an inferior being'; that female characters in a tragedy will be inappropriate if they are too brave or too clever[.]<ref>{{cite web|url=http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/feminism-femhist/#Mis |title=Feminist History of Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) |publisher=Plato.stanford.edu |date= |accessdate=2013-10-01}}</ref>}}In the ''Routledge philosophy guidebook to Plato and the Republic'', Nickolas Pappas describes the "problem of misogyny" and states:{{quote|In the ''Apology'', Socrates calls those who plead for their lives in court "no better than women" (35b)... The ''Timaeus'' warns men that if they live immorally they will be reincarnated as women (42b-c; cf. 75d-e). The ''Republic'' contains a number of comments in the same spirit (387e, 395d-e, 398e, 431b-c, 469d), evidence of nothing so much as of contempt toward women. Even Socrates' words for his bold new proposal about marriage... suggest that the women are to be "held in common" by men. He never says that the men might be held in common by the women... We also have to acknowledge Socrates' insistence that men surpass women at any task that both sexes attempt (455c, 456a), and his remark in Book 8 that one sign of democracy's moral failure is the sexual equality it promotes (563b).<ref>{{Cite book | url = https://books.google.com/?id=VujWajIWxkUC&pg=PA109&dq=Socrates+misogyny+misogynist#v=onepage&q&f=false | title = Routledge philosophy guidebook to Plato and the Republic | isbn = 978-0-415-29996-1 | author1 = Pappas | first1 = Nickolas | date = 2003-09-09}}</ref>}}''Misogynist'' is also found in the Greek—''misogunēs'' ({{lang|grc|μισογύνης}})—in ''Deipnosophistae'' (above) and in [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plutarch Plutarch]'s ''Parallel Lives'', where it is used as the title of [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heracles Heracles] in the history of [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phocion Phocion]. It was the title of a play by [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Menander Menander], which we know of from book seven (concerning [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexandria Alexandria]) of [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strabo Strabo]'s 17 volume ''[./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geographica Geography]'',<ref name="Liddell">[[Henry George Liddell]] and [[Robert Scott (philologist)|Robert Scott]], ''[[A Greek–English Lexicon]]'' (''LSJ''), revised and augmented by Henry Stuart Jones and Roderick McKenzie, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1940). {{ISBN|0-19-864226-1}}</ref><ref>[[Strabo]],''[[Geographica (Strabo)|Geography]]'', Book 7 [Alexandria] Chapter 3.</ref> and quotations of Menander by [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clement_of_Alexandria Clement of Alexandria] and [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stobaeus Stobaeus] that relate to marriage.<ref>[[Menander]], [https://books.google.com/books?id=JC11wYBkrhkC&pg=PA268&dq=The+Misogynist+(Misogynes)&sig=y98In1TUseOWVGHrcOOMQ0Vx1dU ''The Plays and Fragments''], translated by Maurice Balme, contributor [[Peter G. McC. Brown|Peter Brown]], [[Oxford University Press]], 2002. {{ISBN|0-19-283983-7}}</ref> A Greek play with a similar name, ''Misogunos'' (Μισόγυνος) or ''Woman-hater'', is reported by [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cicero Marcus Tullius Cicero] (in Latin) and attributed to the poet [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atilia_(gens)#Members_of_the_gens Marcus Atilius].<ref>He is supported (or followed) by [[Theognostus the Grammarian]]'s 9th century ''Canones'', edited by [[John Antony Cramer]], ''Anecdota Graeca e codd. manuscriptis bibliothecarum Oxoniensium'', vol. 2, ([[Oxford University Press]], 1835), p. 88.</ref>
[[File:CiceroBust.jpg|link=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:CiceroBust.jpg|thumb|[./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cicero Marcus Tullius Cicero]]]
Cicero reports that Greek philosophers considered misogyny to be caused by [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gynophobia gynophobia], a fear of women.<ref name="Cicero">[[Cicero|Marcus Tullius Cicero]], ''[[Tusculanae Quaestiones]]'', Book 4, Chapter 11.</ref>{{quote|It is the same with other diseases; as the desire of glory, a passion for women, to which the Greeks give the name of ''philogyneia'': and thus all other diseases and sicknesses are generated. But those feelings which are the contrary of these are supposed to have fear for their foundation, as a hatred of women, such as is displayed in the ''Woman-hater'' of Atilius; or the hatred of the whole human species, as Timon is reported to have done, whom they call the Misanthrope. Of the same kind is inhospitality. And all these diseases proceed from a certain dread of such things as they hate and avoid.<ref name="Cicero" />|Cicero|''[[Tusculanae Quaestiones]]'', 1st century BC.}}In summary, Greek literature considered misogyny to be a [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disease disease]—an [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anti-social_behaviour anti-social] condition—in that it ran contrary to their perceptions of the value of women as wives and of the family as the foundation of society. These points are widely noted in the secondary literature.<ref name="Deming" />
 
== Religion ==
{{See also|Feminist theology|Sex differences in religion}}
 
=== Ancient Greek ===
In ''Misogyny: The World's Oldest Prejudice'', [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack_Holland_(writer) Jack Holland] argues that there is evidence of misogyny in the [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mythology mythology] of the ancient world. In [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_mythology Greek mythology] according to Hesiod, the human race had already experienced a peaceful, autonomous existence as a companion to the gods before the creation of women. When [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prometheus Prometheus] decides to steal the secret of fire from the gods, [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zeus Zeus] becomes infuriated and decides to punish humankind with an "evil thing for their delight". This "evil thing" is [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pandora Pandora], the first woman, who carried a jar (usually described—incorrectly—as a box) which she was told to never open. [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epimetheus_(mythology) Epimetheus] (the brother of Prometheus) is overwhelmed by her beauty, disregards Prometheus' warnings about her, and marries her. Pandora cannot resist peeking into the jar, and by opening it she unleashes into the world all evil; [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Childbirth labour], [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illness sickness], [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_age old age], and [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death death].<ref>Holland, J: ''Misogyny: The World's Oldest Prejudice'', pp. 12–13. Avalon Publishing Group, 2006.</ref>
 
=== Buddhism ===
{{Main article|Women in Buddhism}}In his book ''The Power of Denial: Buddhism, Purity, and Gender'', professor Bernard Faure of [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Columbia_University Columbia University] argued generally that "Buddhism is paradoxically neither as sexist nor as egalitarian as is usually thought." He remarked, "Many feminist scholars have emphasized the misogynistic (or at least androcentric) nature of Buddhism" and stated that Buddhism morally exalts its male monks while the mothers and wives of the monks also have important roles. Additionally, he wrote:
 
{{quote|While some scholars see Buddhism as part of a movement of emancipation, others see it as a source of oppression. Perhaps this is only a distinction between optimists and pessimists, if not between idealists and realists... As we begin to realize, the term "Buddhism" does not designate a monolithic entity, but covers a number of doctrines, ideologies, and practices--some of which seem to invite, tolerate, and even cultivate "otherness" on their margins.<ref name=bernard>{{cite web |url=http://press.princeton.edu/chapters/i7538.html |title=Sample Chapter for Faure, B.: The Power of Denial: Buddhism, Purity, and Gender |publisher=Press.princeton.edu |date= |accessdate=2013-10-01 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20131005011657/http://press.princeton.edu/chapters/i7538.html |archivedate=2013-10-05 |df= }}</ref>}}
 
=== Christianity ===
[[File:Maria_laach_eva_teufel.jpg|link=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Maria_laach_eva_teufel.jpg|thumb|[./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eve Eve] rides astride the Serpent on a capital in [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_Laach_Abbey Laach Abbey church], 13th century]]
{{Main article|Gender roles in Christianity}}{{See also|Complementarianism|Christian egalitarianism}}Differences in tradition and interpretations of scripture have caused sects of Christianity to differ in their beliefs with regard their treatment of women.
 
In ''The Troublesome Helpmate'', Katharine M. Rogers argues that Christianity is misogynistic, and she lists what she says are specific examples of misogyny in the [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pauline_epistles Pauline epistles]. She states:
 
{{quote|The foundations of early Christian misogyny — its guilt about sex, its insistence on female subjection, its dread of female seduction — are all in St. Paul's epistles.<ref>Rogers, Katharine M. ''The Troublesome Helpmate: A History of Misogyny in Literature,'' 1966.</ref>}}
 
In K. K. Ruthven's ''Feminist Literary Studies: An Introduction'', Ruthven makes reference to Rogers' book and argues that the "legacy of Christian misogyny was consolidated by the so-called 'Fathers' of the Church, like [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tertullian Tertullian], who thought a woman was not only 'the gateway of the devil' but also 'a temple built over a sewer'."<ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/?id=clOT7Hg2CfAC&pg=PA83&dq=christian+misogyny#v=onepage&q=christian%20misogyny&f=false|title=Feminist literary studies: An introduction|isbn=978-0-521-39852-7|author1=Ruthven|first1=K. K|year=1990}}</ref>
 
However, some other scholars have argued that Christianity does not include misogynistic principles, or at least that a proper interpretation of Christianity would not include misogynistic principles. David M. Scholer, a biblical scholar at [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fuller_Theological_Seminary Fuller Theological Seminary], stated that the verse Galatians 3:28 ("There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is neither male nor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus") is "the fundamental Pauline theological basis for the inclusion of women and men as equal and mutual partners in all of the ministries of the church."<ref name="CBMW">{{cite web|title=Galatians 3:28 – prooftext or context?|url=http://cbmw.org/staff/|publisher=The council on biblical manhood and womanhood|accessdate=January 6, 2015|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150206045217/http://cbmw.org/staff/|archivedate=February 6, 2015|df=}}</ref><ref>Hove, Richard. ''Equality in Christ? Galatians 3:28 and the Gender Dispute'' (Wheaton: Crossway, 1999), p. 17.</ref> In his book ''Equality in Christ? Galatians 3:28 and the Gender Dispute'', Richard Hove argues that—while Galatians 3:28 does mean that one's sex does not affect salvation—"there remains a pattern in which the wife is to emulate the church's submission to Christ ({{bibleverse||Eph|5:21-33|KJV}}) and the husband is to emulate Christ's love for the church."<ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/?id=WcyqvWfJnyYC&pg=PA283&dq=ken+campbell+3:28+Rochard+Hove#v=onepage&q&f=false|title=Marriage and family in the biblical world|isbn=978-0-8308-2737-4|author1=Campbell|first1=Ken M|date=October 1, 2003}}</ref>
 
In ''Christian Men Who Hate Women'', clinical psychologist Margaret J. Rinck has written that Christian social culture often allows a misogynist "misuse of the biblical ideal of submission". However, she argues that this a distortion of the "healthy relationship of mutual submission" which is actually specified in Christian doctrine, where "[l]ove is based on a deep, mutual respect as the guiding principle behind all decisions, actions, and plans".<ref>{{cite book|title=Christian Men Who Hate Women: Healing Hurting Relationships|first=Margaret J.|last=Rinck|publisher=[[Zondervan]]|year=1990|isbn=978-0-310-51751-1|pages=81–85}}</ref> Similarly, Catholic scholar [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christopher_West Christopher West] argues that "male domination violates God's plan and is the specific result of sin".<ref>{{cite book|last=Weigel|first=Christopher West ; with a foreword by George|title=Theology of the body explained : a commentary on John Paul II's "Gospel of the body"|year=2003|publisher=Gracewing|location=Leominster, Herefordshire|isbn=978-0-85244-600-3}}</ref>
 
=== Islam ===
{{Main article|Women in Islam}}{{See also|Namus|Islam and domestic violence}}The fourth chapter (or ''[./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sura sura]'') of the [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quran Quran] is called "Women" ([./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/An-Nisa An-Nisa]). The [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/An-Nisa,_34 34th verse] is a key verse in feminist criticism of [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islam Islam].<ref>"Verse 34 of Chapter 4 is an oft-cited Verse in the Qur'an used to demonstrate that Islam is structurally patriarchal, and thus Islam internalizes male dominance." Dahlia Eissa, "[http://www.wluml.org/node/443#_ftn42 Constructing the Notion of Male Superiority over Women in Islam]: The influence of sex and gender stereotyping in the interpretation of the Qur'an and the implications for a modernist exegesis of rights", Occasional Paper 11 in ''Occasional Papers'' (Empowerment International, 1999).</ref> The verse reads: "Men are the maintainers of women because Allah has made some of them to excel others and because they spend out of their property; the good women are therefore obedient, guarding the unseen as Allah has guarded; and (as to) those on whose part you fear desertion, admonish them, and leave them alone in the sleeping-places and beat them; then if they obey you, do not seek a way against them; surely Allah is High, Great."
 
In his book ''Popular Islam and Misogyny: A Case Study of Bangladesh'', Taj Hashmi discusses misogyny in relation to Muslim culture (and to [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bangladesh Bangladesh] in particular), writing:
 
{{quote|[T]hanks to the subjective interpretations of the Quran (almost exclusively by men), the preponderance of the misogynic mullahs and the regressive Shariah law in most "Muslim" countries, Islam is synonymously known as a promoter of misogyny in its worst form. Although there is no way of defending the so-called "great" traditions of Islam as libertarian and egalitarian with regard to women, we may draw a line between the Quranic texts and the corpus of avowedly misogynic writing and spoken words by the mullah having very little or no relevance to the Quran.<ref>Hashmi, Taj. ''[http://www.mukto-mona.com/Articles/taj_hashmi/Popular_Islam_and_Misogyn1.pdf Popular Islam and Misogyny: A Case Study of Bangladesh]''. Retrieved August 11, 2008.</ref>}}
 
In his book ''[./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/No_god_but_God:_The_Origins,_Evolution,_and_Future_of_Islam No god but God]'', [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Southern_California University of Southern California] professor [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reza_Aslan Reza Aslan] wrote that "misogynistic interpretation" has been persistently attached to An-Nisa, 34 because commentary on the Quran "has been the exclusive domain of Muslim men".<ref name="issue">{{cite news|url=https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/10/20/AR2006102001261.html|publisher=Washington Post|title=Clothes Aren't the Issue|date=October 22, 2006|first=Asra Q.|last=Nomani}}</ref>
 
=== Sikhism ===
[[File:Sikh_Gurus_with_Bhai_Bala_and_Bhai_Mardana.jpg|link=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sikh_Gurus_with_Bhai_Bala_and_Bhai_Mardana.jpg|right|thumb|[./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guru_Nanak Guru Nanak] in the center, amongst other Sikh figures]]
{{See also|Women in Sikhism}}Scholars William M. Reynolds and Julie A. Webber have written that [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guru_Nanak Guru Nanak], the founder of the [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sikh Sikh] faith tradition, was a "fighter for women's rights" that was "in no way misogynistic" in contrast to some of his contemporaries.<ref>{{cite book|page=87|title=Expanding curriculum theory: dis/positions and lines of flight|author=Julie A. Webber|publisher=Psychology Press|year=2004|isbn=978-0-8058-4665-2}}</ref>
 
=== Scientology ===
{{See also|Scientology and abortion|Scientology and gender|Scientology and marriage|Scientology and sex}}In his book ''Scientology: A New Slant on Life'', [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L._Ron_Hubbard L. Ron Hubbard] wrote the following passage:
 
{{quote|A society in which women are taught anything but the management of a family, the care of men, and the creation of the future generation is a society which is on its way out.</blockquote>}}
 
In the same book, he also wrote:
 
{{quote|The historian can peg the point where a society begins its sharpest decline at the instant when women begin to take part, on an equal footing with men, in political and business affairs, since this means that the men are decadent and the women are no longer women. This is not a sermon on the role or position of women; it is a statement of bald and basic fact.</blockquote>}}
 
 
These passages, along with other ones of a similar nature from Hubbard, have been criticised by Alan Scherstuhl of ''[./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Village_Voice The Village Voice]'' as expressions of hatred towards women.<ref>{{cite news|title=The Church of Scientology does not want you to see L. Ron Hubbard's woman-hatin' book chapter|publisher=[[The Village Voice]]|first=Alan|last=Scherstuhl|date=June 21, 2010|url=http://blogs.villagevoice.com/runninscared/archives/2010/06/the_church_of_s.php|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100625003539/http://blogs.villagevoice.com/runninscared/archives/2010/06/the_church_of_s.php|archivedate=June 25, 2010|df=}}</ref> However, [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baylor_University Baylor University] professor [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._Gordon_Melton J. Gordon Melton] has written that Hubbard later disregarded and abrogated much of his earlier views about women, which Melton views as merely echoes of common prejudices at the time. Melton has also stated that the [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Church_of_Scientology Church of Scientology] welcomes both genders equally at all levels—from leadership positions to [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auditing_(Scientology) auditing] and so on—since Scientologists view people as [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thetan spiritual beings].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.patheos.com/Library/Scientology/Ethics-Morality-Community/Gender-and-Sexuality.html|title=Gender and Sexuality|publisher=Patheos.com|date=2012-07-26|accessdate=2013-10-01}}</ref>
 
== นักปรัชญาและนักคิด (ศตวรรษที่ 17 - 20) ==
นักปรัชญาชาวตะวันตกหลายคนถูกกล่าวหาว่ามีความเกลียดชังผู้หญิง รวมทั้ง [[อาริสโตเติล]], [[เรอเน เดการ์ต]],[[โทมัส ฮอบส์]], [[จอห์น ล็อก|John Locke]], [[เดวิด ฮูม]], [[ฌ็อง-ฌัก รูโซ]], [[Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel|G. W. F. Hegel]], [[อาร์ทูร์ โชเพนเฮาเออร์]], [[ฟรีดริช นีทเชอ]], [[ชาลส์ ดาร์วิน]], [[ซิกมุนด์ ฟรอยด์]], [[Otto Weininger]], [[Oswald Spengler]], และ [[John Lucas (philosopher)|John Lucas]].<ref name="Clack1999">{{cite book|last1=Clack|first1=Beverley|title=Misogyny in the Western Philosophical Tradition: A Reader|date=1999|publisher=Routledge|location=New York|isbn=0-415-92182-1|pages=95–241}}</ref>
 
=== Aristotle ===
Aristotle believed women were inferior and described them as "deformed males".<ref name=":0">{{Cite book|edition=Spring 2016|title=Feminist History of Philosophy|url=http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2016/entries/feminism-femhist/|date=2016-01-01|first=Charlotte|last=Witt|first2=Lisa|last2=Shapiro|editor-first=Edward N.|editor-last=Zalta}}</ref><ref name="Smith 467–478">{{Cite journal|title=Plato and Aristotle on the Nature of Women|url=https://www.researchgate.net/publication/236725862|journal=Journal of the History of Philosophy|pages=467–478|volume=21|issue=4|doi=10.1353/hph.1983.0090|first=Nicholas D.|last=Smith|year=1983}}</ref> In his work ''Politics'', he states<blockquote>as regards the sexes, the male is by nature superior and the female inferior, the male ruler and the female subject 4 (1254b13-14).<ref name="Smith 467–478" /></blockquote>Another example is ''Cynthia's catalog'' where Cynthia states "Aristotle says that the courage of a man lies in commanding, a woman's lies in obeying; that 'matter yearns for form, as the female for the male and the ugly for the beautiful'; that women have fewer teeth than men; that a female is an incomplete male or 'as it were, a deformity'.<ref name=":0" /> Aristotle believed that men and women naturally differed both physically and mentally. He claimed that women are "more mischievous, less simple, more impulsive ... more compassionate[,] ... more easily moved to tears[,] ... more jealous, more querulous, more apt to scold and to strike[,] ... more prone to despondency and less hopeful[,] ... more void of shame or self-respect, more false of speech, more deceptive, of more retentive memory [and] ... also more wakeful; more shrinking [and] more difficult to rouse to action" than men.<ref>History of Animals, 608b. 1–14</ref>
 
=== Jean-Jacques Rousseau ===
[./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean-Jacques_Rousseau Jean-Jacques Rousseau] is well known for his views against equal rights for women for example in his treatise ''[./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emile,_or_On_Education Emile]'', he writes: "Always justify the burdens you impose upon girls but impose them anyway... . They must be thwarted from an early age... . They must be exercised to constraint, so that it costs them nothing to stifle all their fantasies to submit them to the will of others." Other quotes consist of "closed up in their houses", "must receive the decisions of fathers and husbands like that of the church".<ref>{{Cite journal|title=Rousseau and Feminist Revision|url=https://www.researchgate.net/publication/241893904|journal=Eighteenth-Century Life|pages=51–54|volume=34|issue=3|doi=10.1215/00982601-2010-012|first=C.|last=Blum|year=2010}}</ref>
 
=== Charles Darwin ===
[./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Darwin Charles Darwin] wrote on the subject female inferiority through the lens of human evolution.<ref name=":1">{{Cite journal|title=The history of the human female inferiority ideas in evolutionary biology|journal=Rivista di Biologia|date=2002-12-01|issn=0035-6050|pmid=12680306|pages=379–412|volume=95|issue=3|first=Gerald|last=Bergman}}</ref> He noted in his book ''The Descent of Men'': "young of both sexes resembled the adult female in most species" which he extrapolated and further reasoned "males were more evolutionarily advanced than females". Darwin believed all savages, children and women had smaller brains and therefore led more by instinct and less by reason.<ref name=":1" /> Such ideas quickly spread to other scientists such as Professor Carl Vogt of natural sciences at the University of Geneva who argued "the child, the female, and the senile white" had the mental traits of a "grown up Negro", that the female is similar in intellectual capacity and personality traits to both infants and the "lower races" such as blacks while drawing conclusion that women are closely related to lower animals than men and "hence we should discover a greater apelike resemblance if we were to take a female as our standard".<ref name=":1" /> Darwin's beliefs about women were also reflective of his attitudes towards women in general for example his views towards marriage as a young man in which he was quoted ""how should I manage all my business if obligated to go everyday walking with my wife – Ehau!" and that being married was "worse than being a Negro".<ref name=":1" /> Or in other instances his concern of his son marrying a woman named Martineau about which he wrote "... he shall be not much better than her "nigger." Imagine poor Erasmus a nigger to so philosophical and energetic a lady ... Martineau had just returned from a whirlwind tour of America, and was full of married women's property rights ... Perfect equality of rights is part of her doctrine...We must pray for our poor "nigger.""<ref name=":1" />
 
=== Arthur Schopenhauer ===
[./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Schopenhauer Arthur Schopenhauer] has been noted as a misogynist by many such as the philosopher, critic, and author Tom Grimwood.<ref name=":2">{{Cite journal|title=The Limits of Misogyny: Schopenhauer, "On Women"|url=http://philpapers.org/rec/GRITLO|journal=Kritike: An Online Journal of Philosophy|date=2008-01-01|pages=131–145|volume=2|issue=2|first=Tom|last=Grimwood|doi=10.3860/krit.v2i2.854}}</ref> In a 2008 article Grimwood wrote published in the philosophical journal of ''Kritique,'' Grimwood argues that Schopenhauer's misogynistic works have largely escaped attention despite being more noticeable than those of other philosophers such as Nietzsche.<ref name=":2" /> For example, he noted Schopenhauer's works where the latter had argued women only have "meagre" reason comparable that of "the animal" "who lives in the present". Other works he noted consisted of Schopenhauer's argument that women's only role in nature is to further the species through childbirth and hence is equipped with the power to seduce and "capture" men.<ref name=":2" /> He goes on to state that women's cheerfulness is chaotic and disruptive which is why it is crucial to exercise obedience to those with rationality. For her to function beyond her rational subjugator is a threat against men as well as other women, he notes. Schopenhauer also thought women's cheerfulness is an expression of her lack of morality and incapability to understand abstract or objective meaning such as art.<ref name=":2" /> This is followed up by his quote "have never been able to produce a single, really great, genuine and original achievement in the fine arts, or bring to anywhere into the world a work of permanent value".<ref name=":2" /> Arthur Schopenhauer also blamed women for the fall of King Louis XIII and triggering the French Revolution, in which he was later quoted as saying:<ref name=":2" />
 
"At all events, a false position of the female sex, such as has its most acute symptom in our lady-business, is a fundamental defect of the state of society. Proceeding from the heart of this, it is bound to spread its noxious influence to all parts."<ref name=":2" />
 
Schopenhauer has also been accused of misogyny for his essay "On Women" (Über die Weiber), in which he expressed his opposition to what he called "Teutonico-Christian stupidity" on female affairs. He argued that women are "by nature meant to obey" as they are "childish, frivolous, and short sighted".<ref name="Clack1999">{{cite book|last1=Clack|first1=Beverley|title=Misogyny in the Western Philosophical Tradition: A Reader|date=1999|publisher=Routledge|location=New York|isbn=978-0-415-92182-4|pages=95–241}}</ref> He claimed that no woman had ever produced great art or "any work of permanent value".<ref name="Clack1999" /> He also argued that women did not possess any real beauty:<ref>{{cite book|last1=Durant|first1=Will|title=The Story of Philosophy|date=1983|publisher=Simon and Schuster|location=New York, N.Y.|isbn=978-0-671-20159-3|page=257}}</ref>
 
{{quote|It is only a man whose intellect is clouded by his sexual impulse that could give the name of the ''fair sex'' to that under-sized, narrow-shouldered, broad-hipped, and short-legged race; for the whole beauty of the sex is bound up with this impulse. Instead of calling them beautiful there would be more warrant for describing women as the unaesthetic sex.}}
 
=== Nietzsche ===
{{Main article|Friedrich Nietzsche's views on women}}In ''[./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beyond_Good_and_Evil Beyond Good and Evil]'', [./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friedrich_Nietzsche Friedrich Nietzsche] stated that stricter controls on women was a condition of "every elevation of culture".<ref>{{cite book|last=Nietzsche|first=Friedrich|year=1886|title=Beyond Good and Evil|url=http://www.gutenberg.org/files/4363/4363-h/4363-h.htm|location=Germany|accessdate=January 23, 2014}}</ref> In his ''[./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thus_Spoke_Zarathustra Thus Spoke Zarathustra]'', he has a female character say "You are going to women? Do not forget the whip!"<ref>{{cite book|last=Burgard|first=Peter J.|title=Nietzsche and the Feminine|date=May 1994|publisher=University of Virginia Press|location=Charlottesville, VA|isbn=978-0-8139-1495-4|page=11}}</ref> In ''[./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twilight_of_the_Idols Twilight of the Idols]'', Nietzsche writes "Women are considered profound. Why? Because we never fathom their depths. But women aren't even shallow."<ref>{{cite book|last=Nietzsche|first=Friedrich|year=1889|title=Twilight of the Idols|url=http://www.handprint.com/SC/NIE/GotDamer.html|location=Germany|isbn=978-0-14-044514-5|accessdate=January 23, 2014}}</ref> There is controversy over the questions of whether or not this amounts to misogyny, whether his polemic against women is meant to be taken literally, and the exact nature of his opinions of women.<ref name="Holub">Robert C. Holub, ''Nietzsche and The Women's Question''. [https://web.archive.org/web/20060907092224/http://www-learning.berkeley.edu/robertholub/teaching/syllabi/Lecture_Nietzsche_Women.pdf Coursework for Berkley University.]</ref>
 
=== Hegel ===
[./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georg_Wilhelm_Friedrich_Hegel Hegel's] view of women can be characterized as misogynistic.<ref>{{cite book|last=Gallagher|first=Shaun|title=Hegel, history, and interpretation|year=1997|publisher=SUNY Press|isbn=978-0-7914-3381-2|page=235|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=OdlvNHnC6KMC&pg=PA235&dq=Hegel+misogyny+misogynistic#v=onepage&q&f=false}}</ref> Passages from Hegel's ''[./https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elements_of_the_Philosophy_of_Right Elements of the Philosophy of Right]'' illustrate the criticism:<ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/?id=rJqm5iQcsqoC&pg=PA3&dq=Hegel+misogyny+misogynistic#v=onepage&q&f=false|title=Feminist Reflections on the History of Philosophy|isbn=978-1-4020-2488-7|author1=Alanen|first1=Lilli|last2=Witt|first2=Charlotte|year=2004}}</ref>
 
{{Quote|text=Women are capable of education, but they are not made for activities which demand a universal faculty such as the more advanced sciences, philosophy and certain forms of artistic production... Women regulate their actions not by the demands of universality, but by arbitrary inclinations and opinions.}}
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== Online misogyny ==
 
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