ผลต่างระหว่างรุ่นของ "ผู้ใช้:Pilarbini/กระบะทราย/กรุ 15"

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ป้ายระบุ: การแก้ไขแบบเห็นภาพ ผู้ใช้แก้หน้าเปลี่ยนทาง ลบหน้าเปลี่ยนทาง
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'''Hormonal contraceptionการคุมกำเนิดโดยใช้ฮอร์โมน''' refersคือ วิธี[[การคุมกำเนิด]]ที่มีผลต่อระบบต่อมไร้ท่อ แทบทุกวิธีมีส่วนประกอบของ[[สเตรอยด์ฮอร์โมน]] efers to [[birth control]] methods that act on the [[endocrine system]]. Almost all methods are composed of [[steroid hormones]], although in [[India]] one [[selective estrogen receptor modulator]] is marketed as a contraceptive. The original hormonal method—themethod—the [[combined oral contraceptive pill]]—was—was first marketed as a contraceptive in 1960.<ref>{{cite book |author1author1=Susan Scott Ricci |author2author2=Terri Kyle |year=2009 |chapter=Common Reproductive Issues|title=Contraception |publisher=Lippincott Williams & Wilkins| page=119}}</ref> In the ensuing decades many other delivery methods have been developed, although the oral and injectable methods are by far the most popular. Altogether, 18% of the world's contraceptive users rely on hormonal methods.<ref>{{cite journal |author=Jones, Rachel K. |year=2011 |title= Beyond Birth Control: The Overlooked Benefits Of Oral Contraceptive Pills|journal=Guttmacher Institute |volume=November|url=http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/Beyond-Birth-Control.pdf}}</ref> Hormonal contraception is highly effective: when taken on the prescribed schedule, users of steroid hormone methods experience pregnancy rates of less than 1% per year. Perfect-use pregnancy rates for most hormonal contraceptives are usually around the 0.3% rate or less.<ref name="npsnews">{{cite web |url=http://www.nps.org.au/health_professionals/publications/nps_news/current/hormonal_contraception_tailoring_for_the_individual |title=NPS News 54: Hormonal contraceptives - tailoring for the individual |author=National Prescribing Service |date=11 December 2009 |accessdate=19 March 2009}}</ref> Currently available methods can only be used by women; the development of a [[male hormonal contraceptive]] is an active research area.
 
There are two main types of hormonal contraceptive formulations: ''combined methods'' which contain both an [[estrogen (medication)|estrogen]] and a [[progestin]], and ''progestogen-only methods'' which contain only [[progesterone]] or one of its synthetic analogues (progestins). Combined methods work by suppressing [[ovulation]] and thickening [[cervical mucus]]; while progestogen-only methods reduce the frequency of ovulation, most of them rely more heavily on changes in cervical mucus. The incidence of certain side effects is different for the different formulations: for example, [[breakthrough bleeding]] is much more common with progestogen-only methods. Certain serious complications occasionally caused by estrogen-containing contraceptives are not believed to be caused by progestogen-only formulations: [[deep vein thrombosis]] is one example of this.
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