ผลต่างระหว่างรุ่นของ "สาธารณรัฐสังคมนิยมโรมาเนีย"

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ป้ายระบุ: แก้ไขจากอุปกรณ์เคลื่อนที่ แก้ไขจากเว็บสำหรับอุปกรณ์เคลื่อนที่
ป้ายระบุ: แก้ไขจากอุปกรณ์เคลื่อนที่ แก้ไขจากเว็บสำหรับอุปกรณ์เคลื่อนที่
ระหว่างปี 1947 ถึง ปี 1965 รัฐแห่งนี้มีชื่อเรียกว่า Romanian People's Republic (RPR) ประเทศนี้เคยอยู่ใน[[สนธิสัญญาวอร์ซอ|รัฐบริวารโซเวียต]] [[ค่ายตะวันออก]] ด้วยการปกครองของ[[พรรคคอมมิวนิสต์โรมาเนีย]]
 
ด้วยการสิ้นสุดของ[[สงครามโลกครั้งที่สอง]] ended, [[โรมาเนีย]], อดีตสมาชิก[[ฝ่ายอักษะ]] ถูกยึดครองโดย[[สหภาพโซเวียต]] ที่มีบทบาทใน[[ฝ่ายสัมพันธมิตรในสงครามโลกครั้งที่สอง|ฝ่ายสัมพันธมิตร]] วันที่ 6 มีนาคม 1945 หลังจากmember,ถูกสังหารหมู่ wasโซเวียตได้สนับสนุนและก่อตั้งรัฐบาลคอมมิวนิสต์ขึ้น occupiedในธันวาคม by the [[Soviet Union]], the sole representative of the [[Allies of World War II|Allied powers]]. On 6 March 1945, after mass demonstrations by communist sympathizers and political pressure from the Soviet representative of the [[Allied Control Commission]], a new pro-Soviet government that included members of the previously outlawed [[Romanian Communist Party]] was installed. Gradually, more members of the Communist Party and communist-aligned parties gained control of the administration and pre-war political leaders were steadily eliminated from political life. In Decemberปี 1947, [[Michael of Romaniaไมเคิลแห่งโรมาเนีย|King Michaelกษัตริย์ไมเคิล]]ถูกบังคับให้สละราชสมบัติ was induced to abdicate and the People's Republic of Romania was declared.และสาธารณรัฐโรมาเนียได้ก่อตั้งขึ้น
 
At first, Romania's scarce post-war resources were drained by the "[[SovRom]]s", new tax-exempt Soviet-Romanian companies that allowed the Soviet Union to control Romania's major sources of income.<ref name=Zwass>Zwass, A. From Failed Communism to Underdeveloped Capitalism: Transformation of Eastern Europe, the Post-Soviet Union, and China. M.E. Sharpe, 1995 {{Page needed|date=January 2011}}</ref> Another drain was the [[war reparations]] paid to the Soviet Union. In the 1950s, however, Romania's communist government began to assert more independence, inducing, for example, the withdrawal of all Soviet troops from Romania by 1958.{{citation needed|date=August 2015}}
 
In the 1960s and 1970s, [[Nicolae Ceaușescu]] became General Secretary of the Communist Party (1965), Chairman of the State Council (1967) and assumed the newly established role of [[President of Romania|President]] in 1974. Ceaușescu's denunciation of the 1968 [[Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia|Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia]] and a brief relaxation in internal repression helped give him a positive image both at home and in the West. However, rapid economic growth fueled by foreign credits gradually gave way to an austerity and political repression that led to [[Romanian Revolution|the fall]] of his [[totalitarian]] government in [[Revolutions of 1989|December 1989]].{{citation needed|date=August 2015}}.
 
A large number of people were executed or died in custody during communist Romania's existence, most during the Stalinist era of the 1950s. While judicial executions between 1945 and 1964 numbered 137,<ref>Balázs Szalontai, The Dynamics of Repression: The Global Impact of the Stalinist Model, 1944-1953. ''Russian History/Histoire Russe'' Vol. 29, Issue 2-4 (2003), pp. 415-442.</ref> deaths in custody are estimated in the tens<ref name="judt">[[Tony Judt]], ''[[Postwar (book)|Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945]]'', [[Penguin Press]], 2005. ISBN 1-59420-065-3. "In addition to well over a million in detainees in prison, labor camps, and slave labor on the [[Danube-Black Sea Canal]], of whom tens of thousands died and whose numbers don't include those [[Flight and expulsion of Germans from Romania during and after World War II|deported to the Soviet Union]], Romania was remarkable for the severity of its prison conditions".</ref> or hundreds of thousands.<ref name="cioroianu">[[Adrian Cioroianu]], ''Pe umerii lui Marx. O introducere în istoria comunismului românesc'', [[Editura Curtea Veche]], Bucharest, 2005. ISBN 973-669-175-6. During debates over the overall number of victims of the Communist government between 1947 and 1964, [[Corneliu Coposu]] spoke of 282,000 arrests and 190,000 deaths in custody.</ref><ref name="applebaum">[[Anne Applebaum]], ''Gulag: A History'', Doubleday, April, 2003. ISBN 0-7679-0056-1. The author gives an estimate of 200,000 dead at the Danube-Black Sea Canal alone.</ref> Many more were imprisoned for political, economical or other reasons and suffered abuse, torture and/or death.
 
Geographically, it bordered the [[Black Sea]] to the east; the [[Soviet Union]] ([[Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic|Ukrainian]] and [[Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic|Moldavian SSRs]]) to the north and east; [[Hungarian People's Republic|Hungary]] to the north; [[Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia|Yugoslavia]] to the west and [[People's Republic of Bulgaria|Bulgaria]] to the south.
 
== Formation ==
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