ผลต่างระหว่างรุ่นของ "ยุทธการที่วอเตอร์ลู"

ไม่มีคำอธิบายอย่างย่อ
[[File:NapoleonsHeadquartersAtWaterloo.jpg|thumb|ศูนย์บัญชาการของนโปเลียน, ฟาร์มกายลู ("Caillou")]]
การยกพลกองทัพไปผ่าน[[มองส์]]ไปยังบรัสเซลส์ มีจุดประสงค์เพื่อตั้งรับการโจมตีนของนโปเลียน <ref>{{Harvnb|Siborne<!--W-->|1990|p=82}}.</ref> การทำเช่นนี้ทำให้เวลลินตันไม่สามารถติต่อกับฐานบัญชาการที่[[ออสเตนด์]] แต่กองทัพของเขาจะใกล้กับบลือเชอร์มาก ฝั่งซ้ายของกองทัพควบคุมโดย[[Michel Ney|มิเชล เนย์]] ฝั่งขวาควบคุมโดย[[เอ็มมานูเอล, มาร์กีสแห่งกรูชี|มาร์เชลกรูชี]] กองทัพฝรั่งเศสได้เข้าโจมตีป้อมของกลุ่มพัทธมิตร ในช่วงรุ่งอรุณของวันที่ 15 มิถุนายน ที่[[ชาร์เลอรัว]]
 
==สมรภูมิ==
[[Image:Belgique Butte du Lion dit de Waterloo.jpg|thumb|right|200px| ''มอร์น แปลน'' ที่มีชื่อเสียงโดย [[วิกเตอร์ อูโก]]และ[[ไลออนส์ โมนด์]].]]
The Waterloo position was a strong one. It consisted of a long ridge running east-west, perpendicular to, and bisected by, the main road to Brussels. Along the crest of the ridge ran the [[Ohain, Belgium|Ohain]] road, a deep [[sunken lane]]. Near the crossroads with the Brussels road was a large elm tree that was roughly in the centre of Wellington's position and served as his command post for much of the day. Wellington deployed his infantry in a line just behind the crest of the ridge following the Ohain road. Using the [[Reverse slope defence|reverse slope]], as he had many times previously, Wellington concealed his strength from the French, with the exception of his skirmishers and artillery.<ref>{{Harvnb|Barbero|2005|pp=78,79}}.</ref> The length of front of the battlefield was also relatively short at {{convert|2.5|mi|km}}. This allowed Wellington to draw up his forces in depth, which he did in the centre and on the right, all the way towards the village of [[Braine-l'Alleud]], in the expectation that the Prussians would reinforce his left during the day.<ref>{{Harvnb|Barbero|2005|p=80}}.</ref>
 
In front of the ridge, there were three positions that could be fortified. On the extreme right were the château, garden, and orchard of [[Hougoumont (farmhouse)|Hougoumont]]. This was a large and well-built country house, initially hidden in trees. The house faced north along a sunken, covered lane (usually described by the British as "the hollow-way") along which it could be supplied. On the extreme left was the hamlet of Papelotte. Both Hougoumont and Papelotte were fortified and garrisoned, and thus anchored Wellington's flanks securely. Papelotte also commanded the road to Wavre that the Prussians would use to send reinforcements to Wellington's position. On the western side of the main road, and in front of the rest of Wellington's line, was the farmhouse and orchard of [[La Haye Sainte]], which was garrisoned with 400 light infantry of the [[King's German Legion]].<ref>{{Harvnb|Barbero|2005|p=149}}.</ref> On the opposite side of the road was a disused sand quarry, where the [[95th Rifles]] were posted as sharpshooters.<ref>{{Harvnb|Parry|1900|p=58}}.</ref>
This position presented a formidable challenge to an attacker. Any attempt to turn Wellington's right would entail taking the entrenched Hougoumont position; any attack on his right centre would mean the attackers would have to march between [[Enfilade and defilade|enfilading fire]] from Hougoumont and La Haye Sainte. On the left, any attack would also be enfiladed by fire from La Haye Sainte and its adjoining sandpit, and any attempt at turning the left flank would entail fighting through the streets and hedgerows of Papelotte, and some very wet ground.<ref>{{Harvnb|Barbero|2005|pp=141,235}}.</ref>
 
The French army formed on the slopes of another ridge to the south. Napoleon could not see Wellington's positions, so he drew his forces up symmetrically about the Brussels road. On the right was I Corps under [[Jean-Baptiste Drouet, Comte d'Erlon|d'Erlon]] with 16,000 infantry and 1,500 cavalry, plus a cavalry reserve of 4,700. On the left was II Corps under [[Honoré Charles Reille|Reille]] with 13,000 infantry, and 1,300 cavalry, and a cavalry reserve of 4,600. In the centre about the road south of the inn ''[[La Belle Alliance]]'' were a reserve including Lobau's VI Corps with 6,000 men, the 13,000 infantry of the [[Imperial Guard (Napoleon I)|Imperial Guard]], and a cavalry reserve of 2,000.<ref>{{Harvnb|Barbero|2005|pp=83–85}}.</ref> In the right rear of the French position was the substantial village of [[Plancenoit]], and at the extreme right, the ''Bois de Paris'' wood. Napoleon initially commanded the battle from Rossomme farm, where he could see the entire battlefield, but moved to a position near ''La Belle Alliance'' early in the afternoon. Command on the battlefield (which was largely hidden from his view) was delegated to Ney.<ref>{{Harvnb|Barbero|2005|p=91}}.</ref>
 
== อ้างอิง ==
15

การแก้ไข